Law Enforcement News

Vol. XXV, Nos. 523, 524 A publication of John Jay College of Criminal Justice/CUNY December 15/31, 1999

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In this issue:

Reducing crime by aborting criminals.

Big rulings from the Court, with bigger ones to come.

Policing presents an unflattering profile.

A DWI strategy to make you sober up in a hurry.

COPS office takes some lumps, but loses little appeal.

Getting a head-start on year-end tech snafus.

The Y2K focus: First target the gremlins, then the terrorists.

New wrinkles in the fabric of the drug debate.

What color are your genes? More news on the DNA front.

Who’s looking over law enforcement’s shoulders? Lately, just about everyone.

Shooting gallery: A graphic roundup of the mass murders & spree shootings that colored 1999 blood red.

People & Places: Personalities who made 1999 distinctive.

Domestic abuse: New questions regarding a continuing problem.

The Columbine High School shooting catalyzes the gun issue.

Justice by the Numbers.

 


1999 — the year in review:
The people, the places, the names & the faces

One of the guys
      For more than a century, the board of officers of the International Association of Chiefs of Police has been an exclusive men’s club — but no longer.
      IACP history was made in November when, for the first time in the organization’s history, a female chief was elected as its sixth vice president. Gaithersburg, Md., Police Chief Mary Ann Viverette, who defeated Southern Pines, N.C., Police Chief Gerald L. Galloway for the post, could eventually become the IACP’s first woman president.
      While Viverette says gender has not been something she has had to deal with during her long tenure as chief, her candidacy brought the issue to the forefront.
      “I’ve been dealing with things around her for 13 years,” Viverette told Law Enforcement News. “I’m the consequence of what I’ve developed and learned over the years. It’s really hard to separate which ones are because of my gender.”
      Consequently, she said, the positions she will take as sixth vice president will not necessarily be any different than those which would have been taken by a male chief.
      It is important for women to be seen in positions which can affect the leadership of organizations like the IACP, said Viverette. To be on the board of officers of the world’s oldest and largest chiefs’ association is a significant and prominent position. In her candidate statement, Viverette said that only greater good of law enforcement can come of advancing IACP’s goals.
      “Experience has taught me that while the direction for these goals is achieved through the association’s board of officers, the driving force comes from individuals — dedicated leaders who are willing to share their ideas and sacrifice their time to make professionalism a reality.”


Passing of a legend
      With a seemingly uncanny ability to sniff out drugs, Villa Rica, Ga., Police Capt. Robbie Bishop was a something of a legend in the South, confiscating thousands of pounds of drugs and millions of dollars in cash from motorists traveling along Interstate 20. But after a successful decade-long career, Bishop’s luck ran out on Jan. 20 when he was shot in the head during a traffic stop.
      Investigators believe that on the day he was murdered, Bishop was ticketing his alleged killer, 32-year-old Jeffrey McGee of Schenectady, N.Y., when something in the car piqued his interest. Police investigating the murder later found a copy of a warning ticket written to the suspect in Bishop’s ticket book. While they assumed that McGee had fled to Mexico after finding his luggage in Los Angeles, he actually went north and was captured by police in Toronto on Feb. 4. A tip from someone who had seen McGee profiled on “America’s Most Wanted” led police to Canada after a multi-state search by the Georgia Bureau of Investigation and FBI agents in both Georgia and New York.
      Bishop, 35, was considered by many to be the best in law enforcement when it came to highway drug interdiction. Said Sheriff Roger D. Garrison of Cherokee County, Ga., he was familiar with the makes of cars and where drugs could be hidden. Bishop, he said, could “detect the smallest infraction in a story, the inconsistencies told between a driver and a passenger.”


Homeward bound
      Drug Enforcement Administration director Thomas A. Constantine dismissed speculation in May that his abrupt departure after five years at the helm was due to a position on Mexico’s commitment to drug-fighting efforts which ran counter to that of the Clinton Administration. Instead, he attributed it to a much simpler cause — homesickness.
      Constantine, a former superintendent of the New York State Police, said that he and his wife, Ruth, wished to return to the roost in upstate New York to spend more time with their 11 grandchildren. “We grew up as a close family, and [living in Washington] was a real shock to the culture of the Constantine family,” he said. “I still like [the job] and if it hadn’t been for all the family issues, I’d probably stick around till they took me out in the emergency service wagon.”
      Still, just two days after Constantine asserted before a Senate caucus in February that Mexican drug trafficking organizations posed the greatest threat to nation he had seen in nearly 40 years of law enforcement, Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright declared that Mexico was cooperating fully with the United States in fighting the scourge of illegal drugs.
      Constantine was a strident critic of Mexico’s drug-fighting commitment. “I don’t think we’ve lost ground,” he told The Los Angeles Times. “I think what’s happened is the drug traffickers, especially in Mexico, have become much more powerful and much more dangerous.” He called the international drug cartels a menace, though adding that he was proud of the increased number of drug seizures and arrests that occurred during his tenure.
      Barry McCaffrey, the director of the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy, hailed Constantine for having done a “superb job” in the post.


Dallas breaks new ground
      Less than three weeks had passed last summer from the time Dallas Police Chief Ben Click announced his retirement on Aug. 5 until city officials appointed Assistant Chief Terrell Bolton on Aug. 20 to take over as department’s new top cop the following month.
      Bolton, the first African American to hold the chief’s position in Dallas and the first chief to be chosen from within the DPD’s ranks since Billy Prince led the agency in 1982, is a 19-year veteran of the force. Prior to his appointment, he commanded three of the department’s six patrol divisions. He was considered integral to the building of a mobile, storefront program that created a station house which could be moved from neighborhood to neighborhood. Bolton’s outstanding relationship with community leaders were also considered marks in his favor.
      Having grown up in Richton, Miss., where Ku Klux Klan parades were once held down the town’s main street, Bolton called his appointment an “awesome responsibility.” There are so many challenges the department handles well, he said, but there are some that can be done better.
      While there was some surprise at the speed with which City Manager Ted Benevides made his selection, city officials and the department’s rank-and-file officers lavishly praised the decision. Said Cpl. Glenn White of the Dallas Police Association, Benevides picked “a good guy to do a hard job.”
      There is also the hope that with the ascension of Bolton to the post, the city’s black community will gain a greater sense of belonging — something that may have been considered lacking in the past. “While there has been pretty signage on the cars to protect and to serve, we didn’t think that necessarily meant us,” said Dallas County Commissioner John Wiley Price, who is black. “Now we have a better sense of inclusion, if you will.”


Fear factor
      It would be no overstatement to say that, with his junkyard-dog temperament and relentless inquisitional tactics, New York City Chief of Department Louis Anemone left many a commander quaking in his boots during the agency’s weekly Compstat meetings. Still, his announcement in June that he would be retiring after a 35-year career left many in the department shocked.
      Anemone, the NYPD’s third-highest ranking official and its top uniformed officer, said he was finally worn out by the rigors of the job. “The last five and a half years have been extremely satisfying, but they’ve also been extremely demanding and tiring,” he told The New York Times.
      A key figure in the department’s widely emulated computer-driven anti-crime program, the 53-year-old Anemone was known to take a hard line on civil unrest and advocated using mounted officers to disperse small crowds. He put pressure on commanders to bring crime down in their jurisdictions, the heat often being passed down to subordinates. And while his methods tended to frighten others into action, Anemone is credited with producing results. The highlight of his career, he said, was seeing the city revitalized by the drop in crime.
      “Louie played a significant role in the development of the Compstat program, which is being widely duplicated around the world,” said former police commissioner William J. Bratton. “He was not shy and he was willing to go the extra mile; he was not in it to make friends,” he told The Times.
      Anemone dismissed suggestions that his departure was brought about by friction with Police Commissioner Howard Safir or because Safir did not seek his input in a number of decisions, including transfers and promotions. Likening himself to a “good soldier,” Anemone said his purpose is to follow once the commander — in this case, Safir — gives an order.
      He was replaced by Joseph P. Dunne, a 29-year veteran who had been Chief of the Housing Bureau and has also led the Strategic and Tactical Command in the Brooklyn North area.


Steady hand for troubled agency
      While some in the Hartford, Conn., Police Department may have been troubled by Deborah Barrows quick rise from lieutenant to assistant chief in just nine short years, few would disagree that her consummate skills as a community-relations troubleshooter helped keep the peace this year when racial tensions erupted over the shooting of an unarmed black teenager.
      Barrows, 44, was named acting chief in July when her boss, Chief Joseph Croughwell, took a medical leave for a heart condition that was later determined to require open-heart surgery. She is the highest ranking African-American officer in the department, as well as one of the highest-ranking female officers in the state.
      In April, a white patrol officer shot Aquan Salmon, a 14-year-old robbery suspect. Within days, the city’s minority community had mobilized, staging protests and threatening to disrupt a victory rally for the University of Connecticut’s championship basketball team unless given access to top state officials. Croughwell credited Barrows with easing the city and department through a rough time.
      Even before the shooting, however, Barrows was well-regarded within the community. Larry Woods, a social service director at Chapelle Gardens housing project, said Barrows has the ability to listen and to hear what needs to be done in order to rectify a situation.
      Yet the generally high regard in which she he is held is not universally shared. Some have criticized Barrows, who is married to former State Senator Frank D. Barrows, for bringing her young children to work. Her rise through the ranks was also based partly on national tests that included no written portions, although others in the department officials have ascended through the same means.


Lukewarm welcome
      Despite having won national recognition for his advancement of community policing in Portland, Ore., Police Chief Charles Moose, who relocated cross-country in June to take the reins of the Montgomery County, Md., Police Department, did not receive as warm a welcome as he might have hoped from either the rank-and-file or the local black community.
      The selection of a chief to lead the 1,030-member Montgomery County force had been a contentious one, with both the local chapter of the NAACP and the police union crying foul. According to observers, County Executive Douglas M. Duncan had been in a bind. If Duncan, who reportedly has an eye on higher office, had chosen a white candidate for the post, he ran the risk of angering black community leaders who have repeatedly complained about alleged police brutality. By appointing a black chief, as in the case of Moose, Duncan left himself open to charges of caving in to political pressure applied by the county’s minority community.
      Douglas also came under fire for the secrecy surrounding the selection process that ultimately led to Moose. Not until the process had been completed did Duncan reveal the identities of members of a citizens’ panel convened to interview the six finalists for the position.
      For his part, Moose brings to the job 24 years experience in law enforcement, six of those leading the Portland, Ore., Police Bureau. He is the second African American to hold the chief’s position in Montgomery County. An outspoken critic of racial profiling, Moose made no bones about claims of its use by members of the force; in fact, the department is presently under investigation by the Justice Department.
      “We don’t need to do research and have data telling us there is a problem with racial profiling,” he told The Montgomery Journal. “If the public perceives a problem, then we need to work on it.”
      Acting Chief Tom Evans, who is white, had been strongly supported by the department. But his chances of winning permanent appointment to the post were irreparably damaged this year when white officers shot and killed black men in two separate incidents. Both officers were ultimately cleared of any wrongdoing.


Down for the count
      The fight was over practically before it had begun, complained New York City Police Officer Richard Frazier last year when referees stopped his bout with light heavyweight boxing champion Roy Jones Jr. on Jan. 9 in Pensacola, Fla., after just 2 minutes and 59 seconds of the second round.
      The 39-year-old Frazier, assigned to the NYPD’s 26th Precinct, was ranked as the No. 1 contender for the World Boxing Council title held by Jones. He was paid $350,000 for the HBO-televised match scheduled to go 12 rounds. But Jones, whom many regard to be, pound for pound, the best boxer in the world, knocked Frazier down with a right in the first round. Then he clipped him with a left to the temple in the second round, sending him down on his back with his legs in the air. While Frazier beat the 10 count, referee Armando Garcia felt the challenger could not continue and stopped the match.
      “I don’t know what to say,” a disappointed Frazier told The New York Times. “I came to fight. I had a game plan to fight and I was never able to get into it. I think it was stopped too early. He wasn’t hurting me.”


Back in the saddle
      It did not take much much urging by police and city officials to lure Linda G. Davis out of a recent retirement as assistant chief of the Winson-Salem, N.C., Police Department and back in the saddle as the agency’s new chief in April.
      A 29-year veteran of the department, Davis spent 18 years on patrol before being promoted to assistant chief during the administration of former chief George Sweat. From 1992 to 1995, she served as captain of the Criminal Investigations Division. It was one of the worst times in the agency’s history, recalls Davis. Not only was the city experiencing record numbers of homicides, but it also lost five officers in the line of duty. “It was a very difficult time, as well as dealing with all the other homicides we had,” she said.
      Davis was several weeks into her retirement last year when she was approached by City Manager Bryce A. Stuart about becoming interim chief. Although she said she had no plans of returning to work at that time, she accepted the offer. In March, Stuart asked if she would be interested in taking on the job permanently. By then, Davis said she had gotten into it, and was enjoying it so much she decided to stay.
      “There were some things here that needed to be addressed,” Davis told Law Enforcement News. “I have quite an affinity for this place and the people who work here. To have the chance to do some things for the people and the city was quite a lure.”
      One of the first decisions she made as chief was making several promotions that had been processed but not made. Communication was a major issue in the department, as well, said Davis. There seemed to be a breakdown in the flow of information from the top down, combined with a lack of information and misinformation.
      Davis said she is still refining some ideas she has about how the process will work, but she intends to make herself even more accessible to her officers by attending roll calls and walking around the building.


Just say the Word
      Oakland, Calif., Mayor Jerry Brown and city officials did not have to look far for a successor to Police Chief Joseph Samuels Jr., who was ousted in March for not bringing the city’s crime rate down fast enough. As City Manager Robert Bobb put it, they found someone in the farm system who was ready for the major leagues. Now stepping up to the plate: 37-year-old Oakland police Capt. Richard Word.
      Samuels, a popular official who was the city’s first African-American chief, got the boot along with two other city officials soon after Brown’s election as Mayor in November 1998. In a letter to Samuels and 10 other officials in February, Bobb wrote: “Let me be brutally clear. The status quo, low expectations and a lack of total commitment to the success of this government is not acceptable.” The officials were ordered to reapply at Bobb’s office for their jobs.
      The move angered many city residents and black community leaders, who contended that crime had fallen at a steeper rate under Samuels’ administration than at any other time. He was also credited with improving community relations. In February, more than 70 prominent black community leaders filled the City Council’s chamber to protest the ouster of Samuels.
      The city’s second black chief, Word is a 15-year veteran who, as captain in charge of East Oakland’s toughest neighborhoods, has been credited with reducing drug-related crime and violence near the Oakland Coliseum and the San Leandro border.
      He received wide support from the department’s rank-and-file officers, although the union did not lobby for him publicly. “We’ve been behind him since we heard Chief Samuels was leaving,” said Robert Valladon, president of the Oakland Police Officers Association.
      Word’s plans include reorganizing the department from three geographic units into about 15, each with its own lieutenant who will oversee a staff of patrol and community beat officers. Most detectives and investigative units are also being decentralized.


NJSP gets its man
      As the search for a new superintendent for the troubled New Jersey State Police dragged on this year, it became apparent to Gov. Christine Todd Whitman and other officials that they needed an individual who could satisfy the demands of both community leaders calling for an outsider capable of effecting change within the agency, and state lawmakers who refused to accept anyone who was not an NJSP insider.
      After a search seemingly littered with false starts, state officials finally found someone who fit those unique qualifications in former FBI supervisor Carson Dunbar Jr., whose appointment was confirmed on Sept. 30.
      It would be hard to underestimate the arduousness of the search to replace Col. Carl A. Williams, who was fired by Whitman in February following published remarks he made concerning the race and ethnicity of criminals connected with certain specific types of crimes. In the months following his departure, the NJSP was rocked by two ground-breaking reports by state investigators, which described an agency in which troopers illegally singled out drivers based on race and ethnicity for traffic stops and searches, supervisors encouraged verbal harassment and promotions were handed out disproportionately to white male officers.
      Dunbar, who began his law enforcement career as a New Jersey state trooper, is the first African American to head the agency. And while few seemed able to raise objections to his appointment, it was not without its hurdles. Officials waited months for the 38-0 vote that formally ushered him into the post. Before Dunbar would take the position, arrangements had to be made for him to receive his full Federal pension. Then there was the issue of what some in law enforcement believe to have been a deadly blunder in the course of his career.
      Although he has refused to talk about the case, as an assistant special agent in charge of the counterterrorism squad prior to the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center, Dunbar called off surveillance of a group of terrorists several months before the explosion that killed six people and injured hundreds of others. After the incident, he was reassigned as special agent in charge of administration at the FBI’s New York field office.


No more Nowicki
      The city of Charlotte-Mecklenburg, N.C., was sorry to see Police Chief Dennis Nowicki go in April after more than five years at the helm. But with a new grandchild on the way, Nowicki felt it was as good a time as ever to say goodbye to a full-time law enforcement career and hello to a full-time family life. “I hate to sound like I’m bragging,” he told Law Enforcement News, “but I work a lot of long hours.”
      Nowicki, who ended a 35-year career in 1999, counts among his many achievements in the field the successful consolidation of the urban and suburban factions of what were originally two separate police agencies. During his tenure, he also set up collaborative partnerships with other city, county, state and Federal agencies which work towards developing solutions to community safety issues.
      “Charlotte has been extremely fortunate to have Dennis Nowicki as its chief of police,” said Mayor Pat McCrory. “In matters of community safety, we have seen both incredible successes and difficult, troubling times over the past few years. Dennis was instrumental in achieving those successes and helping this community work through the difficulties.”
      To fill the vacuum at the top, city officials quickly reached out to another police veteran whose career has seen both successes and troubles, in the person of Darrel W. Stephens, a former police chief of St, Petersburg, Fla. Stephens, whose résumé boasts achievements in implementing community-based problem-oriented policing in St. Petersburg and Newport News, Va., had recently been serving as city administrator in St. Petersburg. He had assumed that post in 1997 after stepping down as police chief in the wake of riots sparked by a police shooting.
      Stephens has also served as executive director of the Police Executive Research Forum.
      Nowicki began his police career in his hometown of Chicago in 1964, and eventually rose to deputy superintendent of the Bureau of Administrative Services. After 25 years with the Chicago department, he left to become chief in Joliet, Ill., in 1989. Three years later, he was appointed executive director of the Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority.
      Nowicki’s approach to police work, which centered on problem-solving approaches and the creation of partnerships, won him accolades from abroad and drew Federal grant money to the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Police Department. Those funds helped the city hire more police officers and improve the agency’s training and technology. “Dennis has been, by any measure, an asset, not only to the Police Department, but to the city organization and to this community,” said City Manager Pam Syfert. “We hate to lose him.”


Police intelligence
      To much of the outside world — and even to some in law enforcement — the idea that a police department would not accept a recruit because he was simply too smart sounded like a bad joke. But it was no laughing matter to the city of New London, Conn., where Robert Jordan waged and ultimately lost a three-year court battle to become a police officer, after his high score on an intelligence test disqualified him from joining the force.
      The 48-year-old Jordan scored 33 points out of a possible 50 on the Wonderlic Intelligence test, an exam administered for the New London Police Department and 13 other Connecticut localities in March 1996. The New London department was seeking five or six candidates who scored between 20 and 27 points, the recommended range for police officers, said Chief Bruce Rhinehart.
      Rhinehart and New London officials defended their position by contending that a highly intelligent candidate does not necessarily make an effective police officer. High-scorers, said Rhinehart, will become frustrated and eventually leave, costing the city some $25,000 spent on academy training. Federal District Court Judge Peter Dorsey ruled that the department was reasonable when it rejected the application.
      Not only did Jordan score far above that of other academy hopefuls, he even beat the average score of reporters (27) and attorneys (29).
      The disqualification, however, turned the NLPD into a laughingstock. Even comedian Jay Leno made fun of the agency, creating a parody of the song “Bad Boys,” that included the refrain: “Dumb cops, dumb cops, whatcha gonna do with a low IQ.”
      But after reading about the case, San Francisco Police Chief Fred Lau extended Jordan an invitation to apply for a job with his department. Said SFPD spokesman Officer Sherman Ackerson in The Boston Globe: “He thought, ‘There’s something wrong with this, this is a comedy.’ The Chief said, ‘Why don’t you get ahold of this guy?’”
      Lau believes that even if a better educated police officer is likely to change jobs, they can still contribute to the force.


No long goodbyes
      Questions swirled around the resignation of Syracuse, N.Y., Police Chief James T. Foody, who left the post abruptly in August just one week after the police-involved shooting of a 19-year-old man who police say pulled a knife.
      Foody, 59, who was appointed in January 1995, had drawn harsh criticism for what many believed was a lack of information surrounding the death of Johntier Taylor. His administration was also under fire over controversial police searches and the loss of a $400,000 lawsuit filed by a former officer.
      While refusing to explain the circumstances behind the resignation, Mayor Roy Bernardi said Foody had stepped down for personal reasons. Still, some questioned whether the Chief’s decision to leave was his alone. “We don’t talk each other into doing anything,” said Bernardi. “I wasn’t going to hold him back. He’s decided its time for him to step down.”
      Beginning his law enforcement career with the State Police in 1961, Foody received a law degree from Syracuse University Law School while he rose through the ranks. In 1983 he resigned from the agency to become an Oswego County prosecutor.
      City officials cited Foody’s commitment to community policing as evidenced by the record low levels of murders, rapes and robberies Syracuse experienced in 1998.
      He was succeeded by Deputy Chief John Falge, 47, who has served with the department since 1973. Falge said the department would move right away toward making what he sees as needed improvements in its relationship with the community.


The Lone Arranger
Texas Ranger Drew Carter faces the media July 14 after he arranged the surrender of suspected serial killer Angel Maturino Resendez, who is suspected in eight murders in three states.

Noble endeavor
      Every few years, Ronald K. Noble buys each of his parents a new car — his only concession to the financial success he thought would be his after graduating from Stanford Law School. But even though Noble, who will soon take over as director of Interpol, has never owned a new car himself, it is doubtful he would complain that his career in the public sector has been any less than fulfilling because of it.
      The 42-year-old Noble will be the first American to head the international policing agency when he assumes the post in October 2000. A former Federal prosecutor, he was sworn in at age 38 as under secretary of the Treasury Department’s enforcement division and wrote the report on the Government’s involvement in the Waco tragedy, which led to the departure of several high-ranking law enforcement officials. He was also working at the Treasury Department in 1995 when domestic terrorists bombed the Federal building in Oklahoma City.       Since leaving the Treasury Department, Noble has been working as a law professor at New York University Law School. His habit of working 16-hour days there is something he hopes to import to his new post. Among his plans for Interpol besides upgrading the agency’s technology is increasing its work hours from the current Monday to Friday schedule.


Noble
Duty calls once again

Acting stint
      The Little Rock, Ark., Police Department felt it could not have asked for better in an acting chief than what it got in Assistant Chief David Rowan, who was named to the post in September after the retirement of long-time chief Louie Caudell.
      A native of Benton, Ark., Rowan, 48, is still as enthusiastic about law enforcement as he was his first day on the job, he said. “When I first came down here in the patrol division, to me, there couldn’t be anything better than that,” he told The Arkansas Democrat-Gazette.
      Rowan and Caudell have worked closely together during the past decade. Before being promoted to assistant chief by Caudell in 1991, Rowan served as captain of the Organized Crime and Intelligence Division, now called the Special Investigations Division.
      Little Rock city officials launched a national search for a permanent chief that drew a pool of 63 applicants, which was eventually whittled down to three finalists — Rowan and two outside candidates. In the end, city officials opted to go outside, with the announcement on Dec. 30 that Lawrence Johnson, a 48-year-old deputy chief with the Oklahoma City Police Department, would take the helm on March 1.


State of the union
      New York City Police Officer Patrick Lynch was swept into office in June as the new president of the Patrolman’s Benevolent Association, the first time in nearly 20 years that the office has not been passed down unchallenged to one of a series of successors.
      The ascension of the 35-year-old union delegate from Brooklyn’s 90th Precinct was reflective of the deep dissatisfaction the department’s rank-and-file has felt toward the PBA hierarchy. Foremost among their grievances has been the significant gulf between the salaries of city officers and those of their counterparts in suburban departments. The union had also failed to win lucrative contracts from the city, even in the face of double-digit decreases in the crime rate — hence the rallying cry: “Zero for Heroes.”
      With 38.5 percent of the vote, Lynch beat acting president James “Doc” Savage, the former first vice president of the union under Louis Matarazzo, who had stepped down on Dec. 22, 1998. At one point it was believed that Savage would benefit from the legislative victory won by the union when Gov. George Pataki signed a law that would send all future wage disputes between the PBA and the city to a state rather than municipal arbitrator. As it turned out, Savage’s connection to the former leadership was apparently too much to overcome.
      Lynch took a barnstorming approach to campaigning, visiting all of the city’s 76 stations houses at varying times, catching officers during each shift. His “Voice of the Blue Line” slate captured all of the PBA’s top elected positions.


Finishing first
      The North Carolina State Highway Patrol in February got its first black commander, Lieut. Col. Richard Holden, who was among the first African Americans to enter the agency’s Basic Patrol School in 1969.
      Holden, 51, is described by Gov. Jim Hunt as a “strong leader with integrity and dedication.” He began his career with the Patrol after graduating from North Carolina A&T State University, and made sergeant in 1978. In 1984, Holden was promoted to first sergeant after a transfer to the Raleigh Training Center. Three years later, he became a lieutenant and then captain. As Troop B Commander based in Fayetteville, Holden supervised operations for 11 counties. He also headed the agency’s Internal Affairs Division as a major from 1993 to 1997.
      While Holden told The Associated Press he did not envision making any large-scale changes in the 1,300-member Patrol, he said one of his goals would be to upgrade its fleet with state-of-the-art technology.
      Said Hunt, who personally interviewed all of the finalists for the post, “I have very high expectations for this job and for leadership positions in this administration, and I know that Lieutenant Colonel Holden will meet those standards.”


A healing touch
      Recognized for his ability to apply a healing hand, El Hajji Izak-El Mu’eed Pasha, spiritual leader of New York’s 8,000-member Malcolm Shabazz Mosque, was named as the New York City Police Department’s first Muslim chaplain in June in an attempt to ease racial tensions that had developed in the aftermath of the Amadou Diallo shooting.
      He will be one of six chaplains in the department, working not only with the NYPD’s estimated 102 Muslim officers, but helping to heal the city’s racial wounds. Pasha is said to have a cordial relationship with Mayor Rudolph Giuliani, having served on the task force the Mayor formed in the wake of the attack on Haitian immigrant Abner Louima in 1997.
      Police Commissioner Howard Safir said Pasha was selected by police and city officials for the post because, “He cares about the city, he cares about his constituency, he cares about the Police Department.” Safir called the imam a fair, even-minded spiritual leader with an incredible reputation who will be an asset to both the city and the department.
      Indeed, Pasha has told his congregation that it is wrong to be overly critical of white police officers and of Giuliani in particular. He has condemned those he considers schemers who use race-consciousness as a divisive tactic. “Give the man credit,” Pasha said about the Mayor. “There’s good people in the Police Department, a tremendous amount of them.”
      Named imam, or spiritual leader, in 1993, Pasha began his journey of faith during the 1960s when he joined the Nation of Islam, seeing in the organization a path to the dignity and pride he sought. Pasha was a plumber by trade when he began doing general contracting work at the mosque and helping to manage its properties. The mosque was once the headquarters of the black nationalist leader Malcom X and was the scene of a police shootout in 1973 that left one officer dead.

Just say no
New York City Det. Thomas Scotto (r.), president of the Detectives’ Endowment Association, talks to reporters Aug. 23 to protest President Clinton’s offer of clemency to 16 Puerto Rican members of the Armed Forces for National Liberation (FALN), who waged a terror-bomb campaign in New York in the early 1980s. Joining Scotto are (from left): detectives Anthony Senft, Rocco Pascarella and Richard Pastorella, who were injured in FALN bombings.


Sad Diego
      It was with stunned resignation in January that San Diego officials accepted the loss of Police Chief Jerry Sanders when he announced that he would retire from law enforcement to take a position in the private sector. In April, city officials moved ahead with the unanimous approval of David Bejarano as the department’s new leader, despite a multimillion-dollar lawsuit filed in Superior Court aimed at blocking the new chief’s confirmation.
      Bejarano becomes the SDPD’s first Latino chief.
      Sanders, who could rightly be called beloved by the community, left the department after six years to become president and chief executive officer of the United Way of San Diego County. Dismissing speculation that his retirement was due to health concerns, Sanders said he was simply eager to spend more time with his family after years of working 75-hour weeks.
      The decision to leave the police force, he said, was the hardest he had ever made. Sanders created a videotaped message for the troops, saying he got too choked up to read his prepared remarks. “I think a lot of people are in shock,” he said. “There was a stunned silence after I told them.”
      A 26-year veteran, Sanders was the department’s youngest chief ever when he was appointed at the age of 42. His initiatives to ban alcohol in parks and establish a 10 P.M. curfew for teenagers were carried out with little reaction from adolescents with regard to illegal searches or harassment. No lawsuits have resulted from the strategies, either.
      Under his tenure, crime fell in San Diego to its lowest levels in 25 years, while volunteerism in the city swelled. Said Chuck Wexler, executive director of the Police Executive Research Forum: “Sanders has a national reputation as one of the most progressive, innovative and compassionate leaders in the country.”
      Bejarano, described as a popular police officer admired for his work ethic and humility, has won accolades for his efforts in reducing violence along the border with Mexico. He was also responsible for coordinating security for the 1996 Republican National Convention, the 1998 Super Bowl and the 1998 World Series.
      Chosen by City Manager Michael Uberuaga from a field of 21 candidates, Bejarano’s selection raised objections from Assistant Chief Rulette Armstead, the agency’s highest-ranking African-American woman, as well as from numerous black community leaders and the Black Police Officers Association.
      Her position was made clear during a City Council meeting on April 27, when Armstead pleaded with officials to delay Bejarano’s confirmation until an independent investigation of the selection process could be conducted. That effort failed in court.
      Armstead said she had no quarrel with Bejarano himself, but with what she called an “unfair, biased, corrupt process” that would spawn multiple lawsuits if the confirmation went ahead. Armstead has filed a $3-million suit.


No secret
      Brian T. Stafford, a 28-year veteran of the Secret Service, was sworn as the agency’s new director in March, succeeding Lewis Merletti, who left last January to become head of security for the National Football League.
      The 51-year-old Stafford is a Vietnam veteran who had served as assistant director of the Office of Protective Operations before his latest appointment. From 1997 to 1998, he was special agent in charge of the Presidential Protection Division.
      Treasury Secretary Robert E. Rubin called Stafford’s appointment the culmination of a career in which the new director “distinguished himself through his professionalism, integrity and commitment to duty.” The Secret Service, he added, will remain keenly focused on all threats falling within its jurisdiction — around the world, within the country and in the White House complex.


Time to go
      With everyone from merchants to residents to his own officers blaming him for the department’s seeming lack of preparedness during the weeklong rioting that erupted in Seattle in November, Police Chief Norm Stamper decided it was time to resign as the city’s top cop on Dec. 7.
      Stamper, 55, said that he had already made the decision to leave in 2000 after nearly six years in the post. “I think it’s natural for people to say, ‘Well, of course the police chief is going to say this or say that, do this or do that because he wants to keep his job,’” he said at a news conference. “What I’ve said is, I’m not abandoning my job, I’m retiring from it.”
      His departure would “depoliticize” the investigation into the preparations the SPD had made for the annual meeting of the World Trade Organization in Seattle, Stamper said. Mayor Paul Schell said that the city had wanted to provide a broad forum for the demonstrators and that he and Stamper had spent months working with protest leaders to ensure peace. But as some 35,000 protesters poured into the city’s downtown, the protest quickly escalated into a riot. As the world watched on television, police hit demonstrators with rubber bullets and sprayed tear gas on both peaceful and non-peaceful protesters, but failed to protect the smashing and looting of storefronts by vandals, causing an estimated $3 million worth of damage. Finally, the National Guard was called in to restore order.
      While Stamper was praised in some quarters for his outreach programs, he was deeply distrusted by Seattle’s conservative element. And he was not overwhelmingly popular with his troops, having unwittingly insulted veteran officers last year when he told a columnist for The Seattle Post-Intelligencer that as a young police officer in San Diego he had routinely beaten up and rousted gay men and minorities.
      Stamper said that in those days, it was “more or less required.” The comments outraged many in his own department and elsewhere, who believed the Chief had branded them racists and gay bashers. Stamper had to interrupt his vacation to make an apology.
      In 1996, he apologized at a community meeting for what he termed the “wrongful death” of an unarmed black man shot by one of his officers during a domestic-violence incident. Stamper later told reporters that he supported the inquest jury’s conclusion that the shooting had been accidental. Just months after his taking command of the department in 1994, Stamper upset officers when he wore his uniform to march in a gay-pride parade, but forbade them from wearing theirs in a “March for Jesus” held on the same weekend.
      Most recently, the department came under fire when confidential files generated by a citizen’s review panel disappeared from police headquarters. The department also took heat over its failure to unearth details in the case of a former homicide investigator accused of stealing $10,000 from a crime scene.
      In his letter of resignation to Schell, who some believe may have used Stamper as a scapegoat in the aftermath of the riots, the Chief said, “Although my personal beliefs and political views have often been at odds with many of my colleagues, I’ve managed to love almost every moment of my career.”