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III. SOCIAL CLASS: SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS, RELATED ISSUES, AND DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN THE U.S.8

A. General

Anderson, Kristin L. (1997). Gender, Status, and Domestic Violence: An Integration of Feminist and Family Violence Approaches.  Journal of Marriage and the Family, 59, 655-669.

Barber, Michael, Foley, Linda, and Jones, Russell (1999). Evaluations of Aggressive Women: The Effects of Gender, Socioeconomic Status, and Level of Aggression.  Violence and Victims, 14(4), 353-.

Basu, B. and F. Famoye (2004). Domestic Violence against Women, and Their Economic Dependence: A Count Data Analysis. Review of Political Economy, 16(4): 457-472.

Benson, Michael, Greer Fox, Alfred DeMaris, and Judy Van Wyk (2003).  Neighborhood Disadvantage, Individual Economic Distress and Violence Against Women in Intimate Relationships. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 19(3): 207-235.

Browne, Angela (1995). Reshaping the Rhetoric: The Nexus of Violence, Poverty, and Minority Status in the Lives of Women and Children in the United States.  Georgetown Journal on Fighting Poverty, 3, 17-23.

Byrne, Christina, Resnick, Heidi, and Saunders, Benjamin (1999).The Socioeconomic Impact of Interpersonal Violence on Women.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67(3), 362-.

Cazenave, N. A. and Straus, M. A. (1979). Race, Class, Network Embeddedness and Family Violence: A Search for Potent Support Systems.  Journal of Comparative Family Systems, 10(3), 281-300.

Centerwall, B. S. (1995). Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Domestic Homicide. Journal of  the American Medical Association, 273, 1755-1758.

Cunradi, Carol, Raul Caetano, and John Schafer (2002). Socioeconomic Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence among White, Black, and Hispanic Couples in the United States. Journal of Family Violence, 17(4): 377-389.

Della-Giustina, Jo-Ann (2005). Gender, Race, and Class as Predictors of Femicide Rates: A Path Analysis.  Ph.D. dissertation, Criminal Justice Program, City University of New York.

Eby, K.K. (2004). Exploring the Stressors of Low-Income Women with Abusive Partners: Understanding Their Needs and Developing Effective Community Responses. Journal of Family Violence, 19(4): 221-232.

Fernandez, Marilyn, Iwamoto, Kichi, and Muscat, Bernadette (1997). Dependency and Severity of Abuse: Impact on Women's Persistence in Utilizing the Court System as Protection Against Domestic Violence. Women & Criminal Justice, 9(1), 39-63.

Fine, Michelle and Weis, Lois (1998). Crime Stories: A Critical Look Through Race, Ethnicity and Gender. Qualitative Studies in Education, 11(3), 435-460.

Flitcraft, Anne H. (1995). Clinical Violence Intervention: Lessons from Battered Women. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 6, 187-197.

Forrestal, K., R. Riviello, K. Martin, and J. Fracchia (2004). Survey on Interpersonal Violence: An Economic Impact of Note and Childhood Exposure to Domestic Violence in Continuing the Cycle. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 44(4): S95-.

Fox, G., Benson, M., DeMaris, A., and Wyk, J. (2002). Economic Distress and Intimate Violence: Testing Family Stress and Resources Theories. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64(3): 793-807.

Gelles, R. J. (1993). Alcohol and Other Drugs are Associated with Violence--They Are Not the Cause. In R. J. Gelles and D. R. Loseke (Eds.). Current Controversies in Family Violence (pp. 182-196).  Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Grana, Sheryl (2001). Sociocultural Considerations of Domestic Femicide. Journal of Family Violence, 16(4), 421-435.

Haaken J. (2002). Stories of Survival: Class, Race and Domestic Violence. In N. Holstrom (Ed.), The Socialist Feminist Project: A Contemporary Reader in Theory and Practice (pp. 102-120). New York: Monthly Review.

Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka, Duran, Bonnie, and Montgomery, Juliann (2004). Socioeconomic Disparities in Intimate Partner Violence against Native American Women: A Cross-Sectional Study. BMC Medicine. Available at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/2/20.

Jasinski, Jana L. (1996). Structural Inequalities, Family and Cultural Factors, and Spousal Violence among Anglo and Hispanic Americans. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of New Hampshire, Durham.

Kantor, G. K. , and Straus, M. (1990). The "Drunken Bum" Theory of Wife Beating. In M. A. Straus and R. J. Gelles (Eds.), Physical Violence in American Families: Risk Factors and Adaptations to Violence in 8,145 Families (Ch. 12). New Brunswick: Transaction.

Kaufman Kantor, G., Jasinski, J., and Aldarondo, E. (1994). Sociocultural Status and Incidence of Marital Violence in Hispanic Families. Violence and Victims, 9(3), 207-222.

Kupenda, Angela Mae (1998). Law, Life and Literature:  How Laws of Domestic Violence, Race, and Class Bind Black Women. Howard Law Journal, 42(Fall), 1-.

Lambert, Linda, and Firestone, Juanita (2000). Economic Context and Multiple Abuse Techniques. Violence Against Women, 6 (1, January), 49- 67.

Lockhart, Lettie and White, Barbara W. (1989). A Reexamination of the Effects of Race and Social Class on the Incidence of Marital Violence: A Search for Reliable Differences.  Journal of Marriage and Family, 49(3), 603-610.

Max, W., D. Rice, E. Finkelstein, R. Bardwell, and S. Leadbetter (2004). The Economic Toll of Intimate Partner Violence against Women in the United States, Violence and Victims, 19(3): 259-272.

McCloskey, L. A. (1996). Socioeconomic and Coercive Power Within the Family. Gender & Society, 10(4), 449-463.

McShane, P. M., K. Thornton, and C. Ziemer (2004). If You Think Domestic Violence Is Confined to Inner City Emergency Rooms, Think Again. Sexuality, Reproduction and Menopause, 2(3): 154-158.

Moore, A. M. (1997). Intimate Violence: Does Socio-Economic Status Matter? In Albert Carderelli (Ed.), Violence Between Intimate Partners (pp. 90-100 ).

Moss, Debra Cassens ( 1995). Fighting an "Unspeakable Crime:" Countries Combating Domestic Violence with Lawsuits, Presumptions. ABA Journal, 81, 46-.

Miles-Doan, R. (1998). Violence between Spouses and Intimates: Does Neighborhood Context Matter? Social Forces, 77, 623-645.

Miller, Susan L. (1989). Unintended Side Effects of Pro-Arrest Policies and Their Race and Class Implications for Battered Women: A Cautionary Note.  Criminal Justice Policy Review 3(3), 299-317.

Rennison, Callie, and Mike Planty (2003). Nonlethal Intimate Partner Violence: Examining Race, Gender, and Income Patterns. Violence and Victims, 18(4): 433-443.

Sagrestano, Lynda, Doris Carroll, Angela Rodriguez, Bahij Nuwayhid (2004). Demographic, Psychological, and Relationship Factors in Domestic Violence during Pregnancy in a Sample of Low-Income Women of Color. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28(4): 309-322.

Smikle, Collin, Sorem, Kimberlee, Satin, Andrew, and Hankins, Gary (1996). Physical and Sexual Abuse in a Middle-Class Obstetric Population.  Southern Medical Journal, 89(10), 983-988.

Sorenson, S. B., Upchurch, D. M., and Shen, H. (1996).Violence and Injury in Marital Arguments: Risk Patterns and Gender Differences. American Journal of Public Health, 86(1/January), 35-40.

Stark, Evan (19__). Re-presenting Woman Battering: From Battered Woman Syndrome to Coercive Control.  Albany Law Review 58(4), 973-1026.

Stark, Evan (forthcoming, 1999). Gendered Violence in the Black Community. In Darnell Hawkins (Ed.), Interpersonal Violence: The Ethnicity, Race and Class Nexus. London: Cambridge University.

Straus, Murray. (1994). State-to-State Difference in Social Inequality and Social Bonds in Relation to Assaults on Wives in the United States. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 25(1), 7-24.

Strube, M. and Barbour, L. (1983). The Decision to Leave an Abusive Relationship: Economic Dependence and Psychological Commitment. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 785-793.

Umberson, D. K., Anderson, K., Glick, J., and Shapiro, A. (1998). Domestic Violence, Personal Control and Gender. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 60, 442-452.

Waits, Kathleen (1998). Battered Women and their Children: Lessons from One Woman's Story.  Houston Law Review, 35 (1), 29-108.

Websdale, Neil (1999). Understanding Domestic Homicide. Boston: Northeastern University.

Websdale, Neil (1998). Rural Woman Battering and the Justice System:  An Ethnography. Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage.

Websdale, Neil (1995). Rural Woman Abuse: The Voices of Kentucky Women. Violence Against Women, 1 (4), 309-338.

Websdale, Neil and Johnson, Byron (1997). Reducing Woman Battering: The Role of Structural Approaches. Social Justice, 24(1), 54-81.

Weis, Lois, Fine, Michelle, Proweller, Amira, Bertram, Corrine, and Marusza, Julia (1998). "I've Slept in Clothes Long Enough": Excavating the Sounds of Domestic Violence among Women in the White Working Class.  The Urban Review, 30 (1), 1-27.

Weitzman, Susan (1999). Upscale Violence: The Lived Experience of Domestic Abuse among Upper Socio-Economic Status Women. Ph.D. Dissertation. [Book: 2000. Not to People Like Us]

Weller, Sheila (1988). Middle-Class Murder.  Ms (May), 56-61. [See follow-up: Saved: The Children (1988). Ms (Nov), 85.1

Yllo, Kristi, and Straus, Murray (1990). Patriarchy and Violence against Wives: The Impact of Structural and Normative Factors.  In Murray Straus and Richard Gelles (Eds.), Physical Violence in American Families: Risk Factors and Adaptations to Violence in 8,145 Families. New Brunswick: Transaction.


B. Homelessness

Bard, M. (1994). Organizational and Community Responses to Domestic Abuse and Homelessness. New York: Garland.

Bassuk, Ellen L. (1995). Lives in Jeopardy: Women and Homelessness. In Willie, Rieker, Kramer, Brain (Eds.) Mental Health, Racism and Sexism.  University of Pittsburgh.

Bassuk, Ellen L. et al. (1998). Responding to the Needs of Low- Income and Homeless Women Who Are Survivors of Family Violence.  Journal of the American Medical Women's Association, 53(Spring), 57-64.

Browne, Angela and Bassuk, Shari S. (1997). Intimate Violence in the Lives of Homeless and Poor Housed Women: Prevalence and Patterns in an Ethnically Diverse Sample.  American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 67(2), 261-278.

Davies, Cathy (2003). Housing Associations: Rehousing Women Leaving Domestic Violence: New Challenges and Good Practice. Journal of Social Policy, 33(1): 172-173.

Mullins, Gretchen P. (1994). The Battered Woman and Homelessness. Journal of Law and Policy 3, 237-.

Pardeck, J., and P. Rollinson (2002). An Exploration of Violence among Homeless Women with Emotional Disabilities: Implications for Practice and Policy. Journal of Social Work in Disability and Rehabilitation, 1(4): 63-74.

Pascall, G., Lee, S., Morley, R., and Parker, S. (2001). Changing Housing Policy: Women Escaping Domestic Violence. Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law, 23(3), 293-310.

Robrecht, Linda C. & Anderson, Debra G. (1998). Interpersonal Violence and the Pregnant Homeless Woman. JOGNN, 27(6), 684-691.

Salomon, Amy, Shari Bassuk, and Nicholas Huntington (2002). The Relationship between Intimate Partner Violence and the Use of Addictive Substances in Poor and Homeless Single Mothers. Violence Against Women, 8(7): 785-815.

Wenzel, S.L., Leake, B.D., and Gelberg, L. (2001). Risk Factors for major Violence among Homeless Women. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 16(8), 739-752.

Wright, James (2003). The Experience of Violence in the Lives of Homeless Women. Rockville, MD: National Criminal Justice Reference Service.


C. Shelters / Housing

Baker, C., S. Cook, and F. Norris (2003). Domestic Violence and Housing Problems: A Contextual Analysis of Women’s Help-Seeking, Received Informal Support, and Formal System Response. Violence Against Women, 9(7): 754-783.

Chanley, S. A., Chanley, J. J., and Campbell, H. E. (2001). Providing Refuge: The Value of Domestic Violence Shelter Services. American Review of Public Administration, 31(4), 393-413.

DeKeseredy, Walter et al. (2003). Under Siege: Poverty & Crime in a Public Housing Community. Lanham, MD: Lexington:

DeKeseredy, Walter (2002). Theorizing Public Housing Woman Abuse as a Function of Economic Exclusion and Male Peer Support. Women’s Health and urban Life, 1, 26-45.

DeKeseredy, Walter, and Renzetti, Claire. (2004). What about the Women? A Feminist Commentary on Crime Inside Public Housing Units. The Critical Criminologist, 14(1), 7-11.

DeKeseredy, Walter, Alvi, Shahid, Renzetti, Renzetti, and Schwartz (2004). Reducing Private Violence Against Women in Public Housing: Can Second Generation CPTED Make a Difference? The Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Journal, 3(1).

Gondolf, Edward W., Fisher, Ellen, and McFerron, J. Richard (1990). The Helpseeking Behavior of Battered Women: An Analysis of 6,000 Shelter Interviews. In Emilio Viano (Ed.), The Victimology Handbook: Research Findings, Treatment and Public Policy (pp.       ). New York: Garland.

Gondolf, E. W., Fisher, E., and McFerron, J. R. (1988). Racial Differences among Shelter Residents: A Comparison of Anglo, Black, and Hispanic Battered Women. Journal of Family Violence, 3(1), 39-51.

Hirst, Eliza (2003). The Housing Crisis for Victims of Domestic Violence: Disparate Impact Claims and Other Housing Protection for Victims of Domestic Violence. Georgetown Journal of Poverty Law and Policy, 10 (Winter): 131-.

Huerta, Jonathan (2004). Public Housing: Considering Mitigating Circumstances that Favor Continued Maintenance of Tenants Who Are Victims of Abuse. Unpub. Ms. University of Texas School of Law.

Humphreys, J. (2000). Spirituality and Distress in Sheltered Battered Women. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 32(3), 273-278.

Jarrett, R.L., and S. M. Jefferson. 2004. Women’s Danger Management Strategies in an Inner-City Housing Project. Family Relations, 53(2), 138-147.

Krishnan, Satya, Hilbert, Judith, and VanLeeuwen, Dawn (2001). Domestic Violence and Help-Seeking Behaviors among Rural Women: Results from a Shelter-Based Study. Family & Community Health, 24(1), 28-.

Krishan, S. P., Hilbert, J.C., Van Leeuwen, D., and Kolia, R. (1997). Documenting Domestic Violence among Ethnically Diverse Populations: Results from a Preliminary Study [on Rural Shelters1. Family and Community Health, 30, 317-325.

Madsen, L., L. Blitz, D. McCorkle, and P. Panzer (2003). Sanctuary in a Domestic Violence Shelter: A Team Approach to Healing. Psychiatric Quarterly, 74(2): 155-171.

O'Brien, P. H. (1995). Impact of a Battered Women's Shelter on the Self-Perceptions of Women of Color. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Illinois, Chicago.

Postmus, Judy (2003). Valuable Assistance or Missed Opportunities?: Shelters and the Family Violence Option. Violence Against Women, 9(10), 1278-1288.

Raphael, Jody (2001). Public Housing and Domestic Violence. Violence Against Women, 7, 699-706.

Reif, Susan, and Krisher, Lisa (2000). Subsidized Housing and the Unique Needs of Domestic Violence Victims. Clearinghouse Review, 34(1/2), 20-.

Renzetti, C., and Maier, S. (2002). “Private” Crime in Public Housing: Fear of Crime and Violent Victimization among Women Public Housing Residents. Women’s Health and Urban Life, 1, 46-65.

Rudrappa, Sharmila (2004). Radical Caring in an Ethnic Shelter: South Asian American Women Workers at Apna Ghar, Chicago. Gender & Society, 18(5), 588-609.

Shostack, Albert (2001). Shelters for Battered Women and Their Children: A Comprehensive Guide to Planning and Operating Safe and Caring Residential Programs. Charles C. Thomas, Pub.

Sullivan, C. M., and Rumptz, M. H. (1994). Adjustment and Needs of African American Women Who Utilized a Domestic Violence Shelter. Violence and Victims, 9(3), 5-19.

Taylor, M. C., and Hammond, P.V. (1987). See How They Run: Battered Women in Shelters in Old Dominion.  In R. L. Hampton, Ed., Violence in the Black Family: Correlates and Consequences (pp. 107-119). Lexington, MA: Lexington.

Violence Against Women (2001).( Special Issue on Violence Against Women in Public Housing), 7(6).

Websdale, Neil and Johnson, Byron (1997). Reducing Woman Battering: The Role of Structural Approaches. Social Justice, 24(1), 54-81.


D. Poverty

Bassuk, Ellen L. et al (Spring, 1998). Responding to the Needs of Low- Income and Homeless Women Who Are Survivors of Family Violence.  Journal of the American Medical Women's Association, 53, 57-64.

Bell, H. (2003). Cycles within Cycles: Domestic Violence, Welfare, and Low-Wage Work. Violence Against Women, 9(10), 1245-1262.

Bender, Marnette, Sarah Cook, and Nadine Kaslow (2003). Social Support as a Mediator of Revictimization of Low-Income African American Women. Violence and Victims, 18(4): 419-431.

Benson, Michael, Greer Fox, Alfred DeMaris, and Judy Van Wyk (2003).  Neighborhood Disadvantage, Individual Economic Distress and Violence Against Women in Intimate Relationships. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 19(3): 207-235.

Bent-Goodley, Tricia B. (1998). A Poor African-American Community’s Response towards Domestic Violence.  Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 58(12), 4808-A.

Browne, Angela (1995). Reshaping the Rhetoric: The Nexus of Violence, Poverty, and Minority Status in the Lives of Women and Children in the U.S. Georgetown Journal on Fighting Poverty, 3, 17-.

Browne, Angela, Salomon, Amy, and Bassuk, Shari (1999). The Impact of Recent Partner Violence on Poor Women's Capacity to Maintain Work. Violence Against Women, 5(4lApril), 393-426.

Brush, L.D. (2000). Poverty, Battering, Race, and Welfare Reform: Black-White Differences in Women’s Welfare-to-Work Transitions. Journal of Poverty, 5(1), 67-90.

Brush, Lisa, Jody Raphael, Richard Tolman, Guest Editors. (2003). Domestic Violence and Poverty: Special Issue. Violence Against Women, 9(10).

Cherlin, Andrew, Burton, Linda, Hurt, Tera, and Purvin, Diane (2004). The Influence of Physical and Sexual Abuse on Marriage and Cohabitation. American Sociological Review, 69(Dec): 768-789.

Cole, Patricia (2001). Impoverished Women in Violent Partnerships: Designing Services to Fit Their Reality. Violence Against Women, 7(2), 222-.

Davis, Martha (1999). The Economics of Abuse: How Violence Perpetuates Women's Poverty. In Ruth Brandwein, ed. Battered Women, Children and Welfare Reform: The Ties that Bind (pp. 17-30). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

DeKeseredy, Walter et al. (2003). Under Siege: Poverty & Crime in a Public Housing Community. Lanham, MD: Lexington:  (Canadian)

DeKeseredy, Walter (2002). Theorizing Public Housing Woman Abuse as a Function of Economic Exclusion and Male Peer Support. Women’s Health and urban Life, 1, 26-45.

Eby, K.K. (2004). Exploring the Stressors of Low-Income Women with Abusive Partners: Understanding Their Needs and Developing Effective Community Responses. Journal of Family Violence, 19(4): 221-232.

Fox, G., Benson, M., DeMaris, A., and VanWyk, J. (2002). Economic Distress and Intimate Violence: Testing Family Stress and Resources Theories. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64(3), 793-807.

Gagne, Patricia L. (1992). Appalachian Women: Violence and Social Control. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 20(4), 387-415.

Gennetian, Lisa. (2003).  Welfare Policies and Domestic Abuse Among Single Mothers: Experimental Evidence from Minnesota. Violence Against Women, 9(10).

Heron, S., Thompson, M., Jackson, E., and Kaslow, N. (2003). Do Responses to an Intimate Partner Violence Screen Predict Scores on a Comprehensive Measure of Intimate Partner Violence in Low-Income Black Women? Annals of Emergency Medicine, 42(4): 483-491.

James, Susan and Harris, Beth (1998). "Gimme Shelter": Battering and Poverty. In Herb Ettel (Ed.), United for a Fair Economy Study Group, Washington, D.C.

James, S., Johnson, J., Raghavan, C., Lemos, T., Barakett, M., Woolis, D. (2003). The Violent Matrix: A Study of Structural, Interpersonal, and Intrapersonal Violence among a Sample of Poor Women. American Journal of Community Psychology, 31(1/2), 129-141.

Leone, J., M. Johnson, C. Cohan, and S. Lloyd (2004). Consequences of Male Partner Violence for Low-Income Minority Women. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66(2): 472-490.

McDonnell, Karen, Andrea Carlson Gielen, and Patricia Ocampo (2003). Does HIV Status Make a Difference in the Experience of Lifetime Abuse? Descriptions of Lifetime Abuse and Its Conext among Low-Income Urban Women. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 80(3): 494-509.

Meier, Joan (1995). Symposium: New Approaches to Poverty Law, Teaching, and Practice: Domestic Violence and Feminist Jurisprudence: Towards a New Agenda. Boston University Public Interest Law Journal, 4, 339-.

Meisel, Joan, Chandler, Daniel, and Rienzi, Beth Menees. (2003). Domestic Violence Prevalence and Effects of Employment on Two California TANF Populations. Violence Against Women, 9(10).

Moe, Angela, and Bell, Myrtle (2004). Abject Economics: The Effects of Battering and Violence on Women’s Work and Employability. Violence Against Women, 10(1), 29-55.

Moreno, Claudia, El-bassel, Nabila, Gilbert, Louisa, and Wada, Takeshi (2002). Correlates of Poverty and Partner Abuse among Women on Methadone. Violence Against Women, 8(4), 455-475.

Nam, Y., Tolman, R. (2002). Partner Abuse and Welfare Receipt among African American and Latino Women Living in a Low-Income Neighborhood. Social Work Research, 26(4): 241-251.

NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund. (April 28, 1995).  A Leadership Summit: The Link Between Violence and Poverty in the Lives of Women and Their Children. George Washington University Law Center, Washington, D.C.

Purvin, Diane (2003). Weaving a Tangled Safety Net: The Intergenerational Legacy of Domestic Violence and Poverty. Violence Against Women, 9(10), 1263-1277.

Raphael, Jody  (2000). Saving Bernice: Battered Women, Welfare, and Poverty. Boston: Northeastern University.

Richmond, Erin Meehan (2001). The Interface of Poverty and Violence Against Women: How Federal and State Welfare Reform Can Best Respond. New England Law Review, 35(2), 569-.

Romero, Diana, Chavkin, Wendy, Wise, Paul, Smith, Lauren (2003). Low-Income Mothers’ Experience with Poor Health, Hardship, Work, and Violence: Implications for Policy. Violence Against Women, 9(10), 1231-1244.

Rosen, Daniel (2003). “I Just Let Him Have His Way:” Partner Violence in the Lives of Low-Income, Teenage Mothers. Violence Against Women, 10(1).

Sagrestano, Lynda, Doris Carroll, Angela Rodriguez, Bahij Nuwayhid (2004). Demographic, Psychological, and Relationship Factors in Domestic Violence during Pregnancy in a Sample of Low-Income Women of Color. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28(4): 309-322.

Salomon, Amy, Shari Bassuk, and Nicholas Huntington (2002). The Relationship between Intimate Partner Violence and the Use of Addictive Substances in Poor and Homeless Single Mothers. Violence Against Women, 8(7): 785-815.

Sutherland, Cheryl, Cris Sullivan, and Deborah Bybee (2001). Effects of Intimate Partner Violence versus Poverty on Women’s Health. Violence Against Women, 7(10), 1122-1143.

Terry, G. (2004). Poverty Reduction and Violence Against Women: Exploring Links, Assessing Impact. Development in Practice, 14 (4): 469-480.

Tolman, Richard, and Raphael, Jody (Eds.) (2001). Special Issue on: Welfare, Poverty, and Domestic Violence. Violence Against Women, 7(2).

Tucker, J., Wenzel, S., Elliott, M., Marshall, G., and Williamson, S. (2004). Interpersonal Violence, Substance Use, and HIV-Related Behavior and Cognitions: A Prospective Study of Impoverished Women in Los Angeles County. AIDS and Behavior, 8(4): 463-474.

Websdale, Neil (2005). Nashville: Domestic Violence and Incarcerated Women in Poor Black Neighborhoods. In Natalie J. Sokoloff (Ed.) (with Christina Pratt), Domestic Violence at the Margins: Readings in Race, Class, Gender & Culture (pp. 142-156). Piscataway, N.J.: Rutgers University.

Wenzel, S., J. Tucker, N. Elliott, G. Marshall, and S. Williamson. Physical Violence against Impoverished Women: A Longitudinal Analysis of Risk and Protective Factors. Women’s Health Issues, 14(5): 144-154.

Williams, S., Mickelson, K. (2004). The Nexus of Domestic Violence and Poverty: Resilience in Women’s Anxiety. Violence Against Women, 10(3): 283-293.

Zorza, Joan (2002). Poverty, Violence Against Women: Law, Prevention, Protection, Enforcement, Treatment, Health (Ch. 18). Kingston, N.J.: Civic Research Institute, Inc.


E. Welfare / Welfare Reform

Ards, S. and Myers, Samuel (2003). Effects of Welfare Recipiency on Domestic Violence. Rockville, MD: National Criminal Justice Reference Service (204008).

Bell, Holly (2003). Cycles within Cycles: Domestic Violence, Welfare, and Low-Wage Work. Violence Against Women, 9(10).

Brandwein, Ruth (ed.) (1999). Battered Women, Children, and Welfare Reform. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Brandwein, Ruth (1999). Family Violence, Women and Welfare. In Ruth Brandwein (Ed.), Battered Women, Children, and Welfare Reform (pp.     ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Brush, L. (2003). Research and Evaluation on Violence Against Women: Battering, Work, and Welfare. Rockville, MD: National Criminal Justice Reference Service (205021).

Brush, L.D. (2000). Poverty, Battering, Race, and Welfare Reform: Black-White Differences in Women’s Welfare-to-Work Transitions. Journal of Poverty, 5(1), 67-90.

Brush, Lisa D. (1999). Woman Battering and Welfare Reform: The View from a Welfare-to work Program. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 26(3/September) , 49-60.

Bussiere, Alice and Powell, Roslyn (1999). Welfare Reform and Child Care: Needs of Families Living with Domestic Violence. Clearinghouse Review, 32, 385-394.

Cole, Pat, and Buel, Sarah (2000). Safety and Financial Security for Battered Women: Necessary Steps for Transitioning from Welfare to Work. Georgetown Journal on Poverty Law and Policy, 7(2), 307-.

Colten, M. E. and Cosenza, C. (1997). In Harm's Way? Domestic Violence, AFDC Receipt, and Welfare Reform in Massachusetts. A Report from the University of Massachusetts Boston.

Coulter, Martha (2003). The Impact of Domestic Violence on the Employment Experiences of Women on Welfare. Rockville, MD: National Criminal Justice Reference Service (205294).

Elliott, Belva (2004). Welfare Series: Belva Elliott, Mother of Five, Speaks (October 8). Available at www.womensenews.com

Gennetian, Lisa. (2003).  Welfare Policies and Domestic Abuse Among Single Mothers: Experimental Evidence from Minnesota. Violence Against Women, 9(10), 1171-.

Gonnerman, Jennifer (March 10, 1997). Welfare's Domestic Violence: The Rules Ending Welfare as We Knew It Will Trap Women in Abusive Situations. The Nation.

Goodwin, Sandra (2003). Violence Against Women: The Role of Welfare Reform. Rockville, MD: National Criminal Justice Reference Service (205791/205792).

Hirsch, A. E. (2001). “The World Was Never a Safe Place for Them:”  Abuse, Welfare Reform, and Women with Drug Convictions. Violence Against Women, 7(2), 159-175.

Josephson, Jyl (2002). The Intersectionality of Domestic Violence and Welfare in the Lives of Poor Women. Journal of Poverty, 6(1): 1-20.

Kimerling, R., and Baumrind, N. (2004). Intimate Partner Violence and Use of Welfare Services among California Women. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 31(4): 161-176.

Kurz, Demie ,(1998) Women, Welfare and Domestic Violence. Social Justice, 25(1), 105-122.

Levin, Rebekah (2001). Less Than Ideal: The Reality of Implementing a Welfare-to-Work Program for Domestic Violence Victims and Survivors in Collaboration with the TANF Department. Violence Against Women, 7(2), 211-.

Libbus, M. Kay, Sable, Marjorie, and Anger, Kathleen (1999). Domestic Violence and Implications for Welfare-to-Work: A Qualitative Investigation.  Employee Assistance Journal, 14(4), 1-.

Meier, Joan (1997). Domestic Violence, Character, And Social Change in The Welfare Reform Debate. Law & Policy, 19(2), 205-263.

Meisel, Joan, Chandler, Daniel, and Rienzi, Beth Menees. (2003). Domestic Violence Prevalence and Effects of Employment on Two California TANF Populations. Violence Against Women, 9(10), 1191-1212.

Morrow, M., Hankivsky, O., Varcoe, C. (2004). Women and Violence: The Effects of Dismantling the Welfare State. Critical Social Policy, 24(3): 358-384.

Nam, Y., Tolman, R. (2002). Partner Abuse and Welfare Receipt among African American and Latino Women Living in a Low-Income Neighborhood. Social Work Research, 26(4): 241-251.

Orloff, Leslye E. (1999). Access to Public Benefits for Battered Immigrant Women and Children.  Journal of Poverty Law and Policy Clearinghouse Review, September/October, 237-256.

Postmus, J.L. 2004. Battered and on Welfare: The Experiences of Women with the Family Violence Option. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 31(2), 113-124.

Raphael, Jody (1996). Domestic Violence and Welfare Receipt: Toward a New Feminist Theory of Welfare Dependency. Harvard Women's Law Journal, 19, 201-227.

Raphael, Jody (2000). Saving Bernice: Battered Women, Welfare, and Poverty. Boston: Northeastern University.

Jody Raphael (2000). “Toward A New Public Policy”.  In SAVING BERNICE: Battered Women, Welfare, and Poverty (Ch. 8). Boston: Northeastern University.

Raphael, Jody (1999). Keeping Women Poor: How Domestic Violence Prevents Women from Leaving Welfare and Entering the World of Work. In Ruth Brandwein (Ed)., Battered Women, Children, and Welfare Reform (pp. 31-43).Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Richmond, Erin Meehan (2001). The Interface of Poverty and Violence Against Women: How Federal and State Welfare Reform Can Best Respond. New England Law Review, 35(2), 569-.

Riger, Stephanie, and Staggs, Susan L. (2004). Welfare Reform, Domestic Violence, and Employment: What Do We Know and What Do We Need to Know? Violence Against Women, 10(9), 961-990.

Riger, Stephanie, Susan Staggs, and Paul Schewe (2004). Intimate Partner Violence as an Obstacle to Employment among Mothers Affected by Welfare Reform. Journal of Social Issues, 60(4): 801-818.

Sable, Marjorie, et al. (1999). Domestic Violence among AFDC Recipients: Implications for Welfare-to-Work Programs. Affilia, 14(2), 199-216.

Saunders, Daniel, Mark Holter, Lisa Pahl, Richard Tolman, Colleen Kenna. TANF Workers’ Responses to Battered Women and the Impact of Brief Worker Training: What Survivors Report. Violence Against Women, 11(2): 227-254.

Scott, E.K., A. London, and N. Myers (2002). Dangerous Dependencies: The Intersection of Welfare Reform and Domestic Violence. Gender & Society, 16(6): 878-897.

Tolman, Richard, and Raphael, Jody (Eds.) (2001). Special Issue on: Welfare, Poverty, and Domestic Violence. Violence Against Women, 7(2).

Tolman, R., M., and Rosen, D. (2001).  Guest Editors’ Introduction: Special Issue: Welfare, Poverty, and Domestic Violence. Violence Against Women, 7(2), 123-.

Tolman, R., M., and Rosen, D. (2001). Domestic Violence in the Lives of Women Receiving Welfare: Mental Health, Substance Dependence, and Economic Well-Being. Violence Against Women, 7(2), 141-158.


F. Unemployment / Employment

Avakame, E. (1999). Females’ Labor Force Participate and Intimate Femicide: An Empirical Assessment of the Backlash Hypothesis. Violence and Victims, 14(3), 277-291.

Bell, Holly (2003). Cycles within Cycles: Domestic Violence, Welfare, and Low-Wage Work. Violence Against Women, 9(10), 1245-1262.

Browne, Angela, Salomon, Amy, and Bassuk, Shari (1999). The Impact of Recent Partner Violence on Poor Women's Capacity to Maintain Work. Violence Against Women, 5(4/April), 393-426.

Brush, Lisa (2003). Effects of Work on Hitting and Hurting. Violence Against Women, 9(10), 1213-1230.

Brush, L. (2003). Research and Evaluation on Violence Against Women: Battering, Work, and Welfare. Rockville, MD: National Criminal Justice Reference Service (205021).

Collins, P., Scarborough, K., Southerland, M. (2001). Workplace Violence: “The Family Connection.” Crime Prevention and Community Safety, 3(3): 7-18.

Coulter, Martha (2003). The Impact of Domestic Violence on the Employment Experiences of Women on Welfare. Rockville, MD: National Criminal Justice Reference Service (205294).

Domestic Violence Is a Workplace Issue-Unions Are Pushing for Workplace Agreements to Help Victims. (2003). Labour Research, 92(11), 9-11.

Farmer, Amy (in progress). A Study of the Effects of Intimate Partner Violence on the Workplace. Rockville, MD: National Criminal Justice Reference Service.

Riger, Stephanie and Staggs, Susan (2003). The Impact of Intimate Partner Violence on Women’s Labor Force Participation. Rockville, MD: National Criminal Justice Reference Service (205021).

Jasinski, J. L., Asdigian, N. L., and Kaufman Kantor, G. (in press). Ethnic Adaptations to Occupational Strain: Work Stress, Drinking, and Wife Assault among Anglo and Hispanic Husbands.  Journal of Interpersonal Violence.

Kenny, J. (2005). Workplace Violence and the Hidden Land Mines: A Comparison of Gender Victimization. Security Journal, 18(1): 55-66.

Libbus, Kay, Sable, Marjorie, and Anger, Kathleen (1999). Domestic Violence and Implications for Welfare-to-Work: A Qualitative Investigation.  Employee Assistance Quarterly, 14 (4), 1-.

Lloyd, Susan, and Taluc, Nina (1999} .The Effects of Male Violence on Female Employment. Violence Against Women, 5(4), 370-392.

MacMillan, Ross, and Gartner, Rosemary (1999). When She Brings Home the Bacon: Labor-Force Participation and the risk of Spousal Violence Against Women.  Journal of Marriage and the Family, 61(4/Nov), 947-958.

Meisel, Joan, Chandler, Daniel, and Rienzi, Beth Menees. (2003). Domestic Violence Prevalence and Effects of Employment on Two California TANF Populations. Violence Against Women, 9(10).

Melzer, S. (2002). Gender, Work, and Intimate Violence: Men’s Occupational Violence Spillover and Compensatory Violence. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64(4): 820-832.

Mickish, Janet (2004). Domestic Violence: “Make It Your Business” A Huge Success. The Colorado Lawyer, 33(12): 49-54.

Moe, A. and M. Bell (2004). Abject Economics: The Effects of Battering and Violence on Women’s Work and Employability. Violence Against Women, 10(1), 29-55.

Perin, Stephanie L. (1999}. Employers May Have to Pay When Domestic Violence Goes to Work.  The Review of Litigation, 18(2), 365-.

Raphael, Jody (1999). Keeping Women Poor: How Domestic Violence Prevents Women from Leaving Welfare and Entering the World of Work. In Ruth Brandwein (ed.}, Battered Women, Children, and Welfare Reform: The Ties that Bind (pp. 31-43). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Raphael, Jody (1997). Domestic Violence as Barrier to Employment. Poverty & Race, 6 (4, July/August), 11-12.

Jody Raphael (2000). “Toward A New Public Policy”.  In SAVING BERNICE: Battered Women, Welfare, and Poverty (Ch. 8). Boston: Northeastern University. (work, unemployment, welfare)

Riger, Stephanie, Susan Staggs, and Paul Schewe (2004). Intimate Partner Violence as an Obstacle to Employment among Mothers Affected by Welfare Reform. Journal of Social Issues, 60(4): 801-818.

Rivera, C. (2001). Violence in the Workplace.  From Domestic Disputes and Stalking to Coworker vs. Coworker, Violence in the Workplace is a Frightening Reality that Managers Must Deal With. Office Solutions, 18(9), 38-41. (Quality Publishing).

Rodriguez, R. (2004). Community Partnership Models Addressing Violence Against Migrant and Seasonal Farmworker Women. Rockville, MD: National Criminal Justice Reference Service.

Romero, Diana, Chavkin, Wendy, Wise, Paul, Smith, Lauren (2003). Low-Income Mothers’ Experience with Poor Health, Hardship, Work, and Violence: Implications for Policy. Violence Against Women, 9(10), 1231-1244.

Runge, Robin (1998). Double Jeopardy: Victims of Domestic Violence in the Workplace: Twice the Abuse. Human Rights, 25(2), 19-24. American Bar Association.

Sable, Marjorie, et al. (1999). Domestic Violence among AFDC Recipients: Implications for Welfare-to-Work Programs. Affilia, 14(2), 199-216.

Saunders, D., Holter, M., Pahl, L., Tolman, R., and Kenna, C. (2005). TANF Workers’ Responses to Battered Women and the Impact of a Brief Worker Training: What Survivors Report. Violence Against Women, 11(2), 227-254.

Shuman-Austin, L'Nayim (2000). Is Leaving Work to Obtain Safety "Good Cause" to Leave Employment?--Providing Unemployment Insurance to Victims of Domestic Violence in Washington State. Seattle University Law Review, 23, 797-847.

Soriano, Fernando and Austin, James (2004). A Comparison of Partner Violence in Latino Communities: Migrant Workers, Immigrants, and Non-Immigrants. Rockville, MD: National Criminal Justice Reference Service.

Swanberg, J., and Logan, T. (2005). Domestic Violence and Employment: A Qualitative Study. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10(1): 3-17.

Urban, Beverly Younger, and Bennett, Larry (1999). When the Community Punches a Time Clock: Evaluating a Collaborative Workplace Domestic Abuse Prevention Program. Violence Against Women, 5(10), 1178-1193.

Van Hightower, Nikki, Gorton, Joe, and Demoss, Casey Lee. (2000) Predictive Models of Domestic Violence and Fear of Intimate Partners among Migrant and Seasonal Farm Worker Women. Journal of Family Violence, 15(2), 137-154.


G. Divorce / Displaced Homemakers

Kupenda, Angela Mae (1998). Law, Life and Literature: A Critical Reflection of Life and Literature to Illuminate How Laws of Domestic Violence, Race, and Class Bind Black Women. Howard Law Journal 42, 1-.

Kurz, Demie (1995). Understanding Divorce and Divorced Women (pp.13-); How Marriages End (pp.43-75).In For Richer for Poorer: Mothers Confront Divorce. New York: Routledge.

Molina, Olga (2000). Divorce and Domestic Violence among African American Women. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 34(1/2), 131-141.

O'Brien, J. (1974). Violence in Divorce Prone Families. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 33, 692-698.

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