Lloyd Sealy Library                                                                                                                    John Jay College of Criminal Justice

APA STYLE
BIBLIOGRAPHIC FORM

The examples of bibliographic form which follow may be used as guides in preparing term papers. These examples are based on the style manual which has been approved for all classes at John Jay College.

    American Psychological Association. (1994). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
REF BF 76.7 .P82 1994
Shelved at the Reference Desk



There are two steps in the APA style of documentation:

  • Works are cited in an abbreviated form in the body of the paper. These are in-text citations.

  • Full information about all works cited in the text is given at the end of the paper in a section headed References.


I. CITING SOURCES IN THE TEXT OF THE PAPER
[FORMERLY CALLED FOOTNOTES]


To document the source of your information within the text of your paper, give the author’s last name, followed by the date of the work and the page number. This documentation can be done in a variety of ways, depending on the flow of the sentence:

    Niederhoffer (1967, p. 22) found that....

    A study (Niederhoffer, 1967, p. 22) indicated....

    Niederhoffer (1967, p. 22) found....

    One study (Niederhoffer, 1967, p. 22)....

    One researcher (Niederhoffer, 1967, p. 22) found that....

    Brown and Turner's study (1967, p. 39) suggested....

    A famous sociological study (Brown & Turner, 1967, p. 39) indicated....


When you wish to cite more than one work to support a point, the works may be listed together:

     Several studies showed (Rogers, 1979, p.36; Sheehan, 1982, p.44; Taylor & Young, 1973, p.38)...

If there is no author, use an abbreviated title in quotes:

    In one incident ( "Swimmer Killed", 1987,, p.A18)....


QUOTATIONS


Direct quotations of fewer than forty words are enclosed in quotes and put directly into the paper's text: Reppetto (1978) found that "In the drive against bandits, it was publicity, not bullets, that ultimately counted" (p.259). Note that the citation is part of the sentence and the punctuation follows.

Directquotations of more than forty words (block quotations) are indented five spaces from the left margin, doublespaced, and without quotation marks. The page number or citation information at the end of the quote is outside the punctuation of the sentence.

Reppetto (1978), considering the work of secret agents, found that:

   In the drive against bandits, it was publicity, not bullets, that ultimately counted.

   Criminals were easier to hunt down if they could be recognized and reported.

   Thus an obscure gang of train robbers became famous as Butch Cassidy and

   The Wild Bunch after Pinkerton agents circularized a group photo taken while

   the gang was on holiday at Fort Worth, Texas. (p.259)


PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS

Interviews, telephone conversations, e-mail, and electronic discussion groups for which no recoverable data exists, are not included in the reference list. However, these sources are always cited in the text.

In-text citations should include the name of the person, the nature of the communication, and its date. Mention of the individual's significance to the subject matter should be made if this is not made clear elsewhere in the paper.

INTERVIEW

    (T. Montague, Chairman, Anglo-Bengalee Disinterested Loan and Life Assurance Company, personal interview, October 10, 2000.)

E-MAIL

Format:
    Sender's name. (sender's E-mail address). (year, month, day). Subject of message. E-mail to [name of recipient] (recipient's e-mail address).

Example:
    Carhartt, A. (ABCJJ@cunyvm.cuny.edu). (2000, Jan. 31). CUNY budget. E-mail to Xavier Zuckerman. (XYZ@cunyvm.cuny.edu).

DOUBLE OR SECONDARY REFERENCE

When you read one source, but the authority for the point you wish to document comes from another source, name the original source and give a reference (in parentheses) to the one that you read:
    Seidenberg and McClelland ( as cited in Coltheart, 1993, p. 20 )....


LEGAL MATERIALS

Court Cases. Underline the name of the case and give the year of the decision in parentheses. Use “v.”, never “versus” or “vs”.

Example: The case of Smith v. Jones (1992) set a major legal precedent regarding sexual harassment in the workplace.

Statutes. The name of the law is given but it is not underlined. The year the law was passed must be included. Each word of the statute is capitalized.

Example: To prevent people with disabilities from being discriminated against in the workplace, the U. S. Congress passed the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990 .


II. EXAMPLES FOR THE REFERENCES LIST

Every in-text citation must have a complete reference in the references list.

SINGLE AUTHOR (BOOK)
    Lofland, L. (1973) . A world of strangers: Order and action in urban public space. New York: Basic Books.

MULTIPLE AUTHORS (BOOK)
     Taylor, I., Walton, P., & Young, J. (1973). The new criminology: For a social theory of deviance. New York: Harper & Row.

MONTHLY MAGAZINE ARTICLE
     Klinger, E. (1987, October). The power of daydreams. Psychology Today, pp. 36-44.

WEEKLY MAGAZINE ARTICLE (WITH AUTHOR)
     Easterbrook, G. (1987, August 17). Big dumb rockets. Newsweek, pp. 46-60.

WEEKLY MAGAZINE ARTICLE (UNSIGNED)
     Shuttle crew studying ozone layer in atmosphere. (1993, April 11). Time, p. 34.

SIGNED JOURNAL ARTICLE
     Bachman, R., & Pasternoster, R. (1993). A contemporary look at the effects of rape law reform: How far have we really come? The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 84, 554-574.

Include the issue number in parentheses after the volume only if each issue begins with p.1

SIGNED NEWSPAPER ARTICLE
     Browne, M.W. (1985, July 30). Puzzling crystals plunge scientists into uncertainty. New York Times, pp. C3, C15.

UNSIGNED NEWSPAPER ARTICLE
     Swimmer killed by alligator in spring at a park in Florida. (1987, July 14). New York Times, p. A18.

SIGNED ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLE
     Capron, A.M. (1983). Euthanasia. In Encyclopedia of crime and justice (Vol. 2, pp. 709-715). New York: The Free Press.

UNSIGNED ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLE
     Electron gun. (1993) In Collier’s encyclopedia (Vol.9, p.1). New York: Macmillian Educational.

DOUBLE or SECONDARY REFERENCE
When you did not read the original source of the information you wish to document, give a citation in the references list only to the source you did read. (However, in the text of the paper , you must name the original source as well as giving a reference to the source you read. There is an example on page 2.)

CORPORATE AUTHOR (BOOK)
     Federal Bureau of Investigation. (1999). Uniform crime reports for theUnited States: 1998. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

EDITION OTHER THAN FIRST
     Barzun, J., & Graff, H.F. (1977). The modern researcher (3d ed.)NewYork: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich.

REPUBLISHED BOOK
     Beccaria, Cesare. (1986). On crime and punishments (D. Young, Trans.) Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing. (Original work published 1764).

NO AUTHOR GIVEN (BOOK)
     College-bound seniors. (1984). Princeton, NJ: College Board Publications.

BOOK REVIEW

     Baumeister, R. F. (1993). Exposing the self-knowledge myth [Review of the book The self-knower: A hero under control]. Contemporary Psychology, 38, 466-467.

DOCTORAL DISSERTATION
     Smith, A. B. (1959). Analysis of interaction process and sociometric relations developed during group therapy with offenders on probation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, New York University, New York

TRANSLATED WORK
     Weber, M. (1964) The theory of social and economic organization (A.M. Henderson & T. Parsons, Trans.). New York: The Free Press. (Original work published 1947).

MULTI-VOLUME WORK
     Beveridge, A. J. (1916-1919). The life of John Marshall (Vols. 1-4). New York: Houghton and Mifflin.

CHAPTER IN AN ANTHOLOGY
     Spitzer, S., & Scull, A. (1977). Social control in historical perspective: From private to public responses to crime. In D.F. Greenberg (Ed.), Corrections and punishment (pp. 265-286). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.

COLLECTION OF ESSAYS
     Gatrell, V.A.C., Lenman, B., & Parker, G. (Eds.). (1980). Crime and the law: The social history of crime in Western Europe since 1500. London: Europa Publications.

REPRINTED FROM ANOTHER SOURCE
     Daiches, D. (1939, June). W.H. Auden: The search for a public. Poetry, pp. 148-156. (Excerpted and reprinted in Poetry Criticism, 1990, 1 , 7-9).

CONFERENCE PAPER
     Sheehan, W.J. (1982, March). Wicked as Hell itself: Women in the prisons of Georgian London. Paper presented at the meeting of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, Louisville, KY.

LEGAL MATERIALS
For further references to legal materials, see the APA Publication Manual (4th ed.), pp.223-234. The Manual is shelved at the second floor ReferenceDesk. See also Harvard Law Review Association. (1996).
The bluebook:A uniform system of citation. (16th ed ) shelved in reserve.

COURT CASE
     Sierra Club v. Froehlke, 816 F.2nd 205 (5th Cir. 1987).

STATUTE
     Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990, Pub. L. No. 101-336, 2, 104 Stat. 328 (1991).

CODE
     Americans With Disabilites Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C.A. 12101 et seq. (West 1993).

EXECUTIVE ORDER
     Exec. Order No. 12804, 3 C. F. R. 298 (1992).


REFERENCES TO ELECTRONIC MEDIA


Electronic media include documents on Web sites, abstracts on CD, online databases, computer printouts, and data tapes. E-mail, chat, and bulletin boards are considered personal communications and cited in-text only. See page two above.

As with published sources, the goal of citing electronic media is (1) to credit the author and (2) to enable someone else to find the same information that you cite. References to electronic formats must give all of the same types of information as print sources -- to the extent that this is possible. At the very minimum, references to documents on the Web must include the URL and the date the site was accessed. This is because the URL may change or disappear or a text may differ on different dates. Below is one sample reference. For further elaboration and examples, see the one-page library handout Electronic Reference Formats (APA Style).

Basic Format: Author. (Date of the document). Title of the document. (Number of pages, paragraphs or words.) Retrieved date from the World Wide Web:[ URL ].

Example: United States. Surgeon General. (1998). A report: Tobacco use among U.S. racial/ethnic minority groups (345 p.). Retrieved Sept.6, 2000 from the World Wide Web: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/osh/sgr-minorities.htm


Students may wish to consult an additional guide to using APA format:
     Amato, C. J. (1998). The world’s easiest guide to using the APA. (2d ed.) Westminster, CA: Stargazer Publishing.

The APA Manual is concerned with the form for references of the term paper or thesis. It provides little guidance on techniques for researching, organizing, writing, or otherwise preparing the paper. Books addressing these aspects of the paper can be found in the Library's circulation and reference collections under the call numbers beginning with PE 1110, PE 1478, and LB 2369.

THIS IS THE BASIC REFERENCE FORMAT



Each reference in the reference list begins five to seven spaces in from the margin, about one-half inch, with subsequent lines going back out to the margin.
Entries should be double spaced.
Individual references are separated by two blank lines.



This document and Electronic Reference Formats and all guides produced at the Sealy Library may be retrieved via the Library Homepage http://www.lib.jjay.cuny.edu under “Research Guides & Bibliographies”.
Rev. 9/00 J.D.


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