|Lloyd Sealy Library John Jay College of Criminal Justice|
American Psychological Association. (1994). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
REF BF 76.7 .P82 1994
Shelved at the Reference Desk
[FORMERLY CALLED FOOTNOTES]
To document the source of your information within the text of your paper, give the author’s last name, followed by the date of the work and the page number. This documentation can be done in a variety of ways, depending on the flow of the sentence:
Niederhoffer (1967, p. 22) found that....
A study (Niederhoffer, 1967, p. 22) indicated....
Niederhoffer (1967, p. 22) found....
One study (Niederhoffer, 1967, p. 22)....
One researcher (Niederhoffer, 1967, p. 22) found that....
Brown and Turner's study (1967, p. 39) suggested....
A famous sociological study (Brown & Turner, 1967, p. 39) indicated....
When you wish to cite more than one work to support a point, the works may be listed together:
Several studies showed (Rogers, 1979, p.36; Sheehan, 1982, p.44; Taylor & Young, 1973, p.38)...
If there is no author, use an abbreviated title in quotes:
In one incident ( "Swimmer Killed", 1987,, p.A18)....
Direct quotations of fewer than forty words are enclosed in quotes and put directly into the paper's text: Reppetto (1978) found that "In the drive against bandits, it was publicity, not bullets, that ultimately counted" (p.259). Note that the citation is part of the sentence and the punctuation follows.
Directquotations of more than forty words (block quotations) are indented five spaces from the left margin, doublespaced, and without quotation marks. The page number or citation information at the end of the quote is outside the punctuation of the sentence.
Reppetto (1978), considering the work of secret agents, found that:
In the drive against bandits, it was publicity, not bullets, that ultimately counted.
Criminals were easier to hunt down if they could be recognized and reported.
Thus an obscure gang of train robbers became famous as Butch Cassidy and
The Wild Bunch after Pinkerton agents circularized a group photo taken while
the gang was on holiday at Fort Worth, Texas. (p.259)
Interviews, telephone conversations, e-mail, and electronic discussion groups for which no recoverable data exists, are not included in the reference list. However, these sources are always cited in the text.
In-text citations should include the name of the person, the nature of the communication, and its date. Mention of the individual's significance to the subject matter should be made if this is not made clear elsewhere in the paper.
(T. Montague, Chairman, Anglo-Bengalee Disinterested Loan and Life Assurance Company, personal interview, October 10, 2000.)
Sender's name. (sender's E-mail address). (year, month, day). Subject of message. E-mail to [name of recipient] (recipient's e-mail address).
Carhartt, A. (ABCJJ@cunyvm.cuny.edu). (2000, Jan. 31). CUNY budget. E-mail to Xavier Zuckerman. (XYZ@cunyvm.cuny.edu).
When you read one source, but the authority for the point you wish to document comes from another source, name the original source and give a reference (in parentheses) to the one that you read:
Seidenberg and McClelland ( as cited in Coltheart, 1993, p. 20 )....
Court Cases. Underline the name of the case and give the year of the decision in parentheses. Use “v.”, never “versus” or “vs”.
Example: The case of Smith v. Jones (1992) set a major legal precedent regarding sexual harassment in the workplace.
Statutes. The name of the law is given but it is not underlined. The year the law was passed must be included. Each word of the statute is capitalized.
Example: To prevent people with disabilities from being discriminated against in the workplace, the U. S. Congress passed the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990 .
Include the issue number in parentheses after the volume only if each issue begins with p.1
Baumeister, R. F. (1993). Exposing the self-knowledge myth [Review of the book The self-knower: A hero under control]. Contemporary Psychology, 38, 466-467.
The bluebook:A uniform system of citation. (16th ed ) shelved in reserve.
Electronic media include documents on Web sites, abstracts on CD, online databases, computer printouts, and data tapes. E-mail, chat, and bulletin boards are considered personal communications and cited in-text only. See page two above.
As with published sources, the goal of citing electronic media is (1) to credit the author and (2) to enable someone else to find the same information that you cite. References to electronic formats must give all of the same types of information as print sources -- to the extent that this is possible. At the very minimum, references to documents on the Web must include the URL and the date the site was accessed. This is because the URL may change or disappear or a text may differ on different dates. Below is one sample reference. For further elaboration and examples, see the one-page library handout Electronic Reference Formats (APA Style).
Basic Format: Author. (Date of the document). Title of the document. (Number of pages, paragraphs or words.) Retrieved date from the World Wide Web:[ URL ].
Example: United States. Surgeon General. (1998). A report: Tobacco use among U.S. racial/ethnic minority groups (345 p.). Retrieved Sept.6, 2000 from the World Wide Web: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/osh/sgr-minorities.htm
Students may wish to consult an additional guide to using APA format:
Amato, C. J. (1998). The world’s easiest guide to using the APA. (2d ed.) Westminster, CA: Stargazer Publishing.
The APA Manual is concerned with the form for references of the term paper or thesis. It provides little guidance on techniques for researching, organizing, writing, or otherwise preparing the paper. Books addressing these aspects of the paper can be found in the Library's circulation and reference collections under the call numbers beginning with PE 1110, PE 1478, and LB 2369.
Each reference in the reference list begins five to seven spaces in from the margin, about one-half inch, with subsequent lines going back out to the margin.
Entries should be double spaced.
Individual references are separated by two blank lines.
This document and Electronic Reference Formats and all guides produced at the Sealy Library may be retrieved via the Library Homepage http://www.lib.jjay.cuny.edu under “Research Guides & Bibliographies”.
Rev. 9/00 J.D.