Lloyd Sealy Library                                                                                                                    John Jay College of Criminal Justice

THE NATIVE AMERICANS OF NORTH AMERICA:

A Research Guide for the Lloyd Sealy Library

John Jay College of Criminal Justice

Ellen Sexton

Reference Librarian

1996


This guide is designed primarily as an introduction to the resources in John Jay College library in the area of Native American studies. The aim of the guide is to help users of John Jay library to locate the material that the library has in this field and suggest some additional resources available in New York City.

The term Indians of North America is the traditional term used by English-speaking non-Native Americans. Despite the widespread use of the term, both within the Native American community and the North American population, many people prefer to use the term Native Americans, acknowledging the fact that these peoples were the original inhabitants of the continent. The term is associated with the 1960's Native American campaigns for civil rights - campaigns which helped to change the policy of the federal government to one of self determination for the tribal communities. Throughout this guide, the term Native Americans will be used.

The Native Americans are not a homogenous population. There are about 500 different tribes grouped together by language group, or by geographic region, or by cultural area. The cultural area concept allows tribes to be organized by a combination of geographical and cultural parameters. The ten major cultural areas are the Arctic, Subarctic, Northeast, Southeast, Plains, Plateau, Southwest, Great Basin, California and Northwest coast. Once you know in which cultural area the tribe you are researching is classified, you can concentrate your research strategy on works covering that particular area. For example, if researching the Tuscarora tribe, you would consult the volume of the Handbook of North American Indians entitled "Northeast", where you would find the primary entry in the handbook for that tribe. The term tribe has been used for centuries to describe Native American communities. Other terms used include nation, confederacy, community, village, and corporation.

It is worth remembering that tribal names have have changed down through the centuries, and many tribes may be described by different names today. For example, the Navajo people are also known as Navajoh and Navaho. The two distinct Dakota and Lakota communities are often referred to as the Sioux, or are both labelled Lakota. The changes in terminology are confusing. When looking for information about a specific tribe, it is helpful to be aware of all of the names that the tribe has been given, and all of the spelling variations. This will enable you to check the catalog, or book index, or whatever information source you are using for all of the variations.


Table of Contents


REFERENCE BOOKS

The best and easiest place to get started is the Reference Area. The books here will give you an introduction and overview of your subject. Browse the bookshelves in the Reference Area between call numbers E77 and E99, or go directly to one of the works listed below.

Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, and Handbooks:

Handbook of North American Indians. 
     (1978-1981).  Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian.  9 volumes.    
     Reference E 77 .H25

This a comprehensive and in-depth encyclopedic work. Some volumes are arranged by geographical area, e.g., you will find information about the Native Americans of the New York region in volume 15, entitled Northeast. Other volumes are devoted to an overview of a particular aspect of life, volume 17, for example, describes languages. Each volume has its own index. This work supersedes and considerably expands Hodge's Handbook of American Indians north of Mexico, originally published in 1907-1910 (Reference E 76.2 .H6 ).

Johnson, M. (1994). The native tribes of North America; a concise encyclopedia. New York: MacMillan. Reference E 76.2 .J64 1994

Dictionary style entries give a brief description of each tribe, their history and their way of life. Some good maps locating the tribes are included , as well as a number of historic photographs.

Waldman, C. (1987). Encyclopedia of Native American tribes. New York: Facts on File. Reference E76.2.W35 1987

Brief cross-referenced entries describe the tribes of North and Middle America. There is a bibliography at the end of the book. At the start of the book, on pages xi to xiii, there is a list of tribes arranged under their language groups and culture areas.

Patterson, L. and Snodgrass, M. E. (1994). Indian terms of the Americas. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited. Reference E 54.5 .P47 1994

Words used by, and about, Native Americans are defined and explained.

Reference encylopedia of the American Indian. (1967). New York: B. Klein and Company. Reference E 76.2 .R4 1967

This work is useful for biographies of people from all cultures engaged in Native American affairs up until the 1960s. A bibliography is included. A lot of the information regarding organizations is out of date. For current information (as of 1993) use the following work:

Hirshfelder, Arlene. (1993). The Native American almanac; a portrait of Native America today. New York: Prentice Hall. Reference E 77 .H59 1993

This is one of the best and comprehensive reference works available. It is an excellent resource for information on many aspects of Native American life today, including education, languages, employment, etc. as well as discussions of the relationship between the federal government and Native Americans. It has a good overview of the history of government policy regarding Native Americans. It includes information on significant Supreme Court cases. Names and addresses of organizations concerned with Native Americans are provided.

Swanton, John Reed. (1968). Indian tribes of North America. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. Reference E 77 .S94 1968

This work describes itself as a "tribal map", i.e., it provides lists of tribes that lived in different parts of North America. It provides a brief historic description of each tribe, with estimates of historical population figures. The villages inhabited by each tribe are also listed.

Native America in the twentieth century; an encyclopedia. (1994). New York: Garland. Reference E 76.2 .N36 1994 (If you do not see it on the shelf, check at the reference desk)

This is an excellent information source covering just about every aspect of life for Native Americans up to 1993.

Hirschfelder, A. (1992). Encyclopedia of Native American religions. New York: Facts on File. Reference E 98 .R3 H73 1992

This encyclopedia includes information on both traditional Native American religions, traditions and ceremonies, and the activities of European missionaries. It contains biographies of Native American religous leaders, Christian missionaries and practitioners of traditional medicine.

Driver, Harold E. (1969). Indians of North America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Stacks E 58 .D68 1969

The sections of this book are arranged according to different aspects of Native American life, rather than by tribe. There are ample bibliographies.


General Reference Works Containing Significant Amounts of Information on Native Americans

Encyclopedia of the North American colonies. (1993). 3 volumes. New York: S. Scribner's Sons. Reference E 45 .E53 1993

Although this work focuses mainly on the colonists, there is some material regarding Native Americans during the colonial period, particularly regarding the interactions of the colonists with the indigenous peoples. One of the first chapters discusses the archeology of the first Americans. There are bibliographies at the end of each chapter.

Encylopedia of world cultures. North America. Volume 1. North America. (1991). Boston: G.K. Hall. Reference GN 307 .E53 1991

There are 2-3 page long entries arranged under the tribe's name, with short bibliographies. Traditional life styles and life today are discussed.

Harvard encyclopedia of American ethnic groups. (1980). Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press. Reference Desk E 184 .A1 H35

This work contains a one chapter overview on Native Americans.

Statistics Sources

The U.S. Bureau of Statistics is the main source of statistical information about the Native American population. According to the latest census, in 1990, the Native American population stood at 1,959,234. This is less than one per cent of the total U.S. population. Figures for Native Americans have been included in the census statistics since 1890; however, designations as to who was a Native American, or American Indian, have varied. Since the 1960 census, individuals have been able to classify themselves according to race. Up until 1960, race was designated by the census enumerator. For a discussion of the problems inherent in using the census figures, see pages 36-39 of the Native American Almanac ( Reference E 77 .H59 1993) and pages 3-4 of volume one of the Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial times to 1970 (Reference HA 202 .H57 1989 part 1).

Paul, Stuart. (1987). Nations within a nation; historical statistics of American Indians. New York: Greenwood Press. Reference E 77 .S924 1987

This is an attempt to compile statistics from different sources into one convenient volume. It primarily covers statistics from the late nineteenth and the twentieth century. It is useful for providing population numbers.

1980 Census of Population. Volume 2. Subject reports. American Indians, Eskimos and Aleuts on identified reservations and in the historic areas of Oklahoma (excluding tables urbanized areas). (1986). Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Reference HA 201 1980K v.2 pt. 1D

This work provides population figures, income levels, employment, etc.

Historical statistics of the United States; Colonial times to 1970. (1989). Prepared by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. White Plains, NY: Kraus International Publications. Reference HA 202 .H57 1989

Look in the index for the heading Indian.

Statistical abstract of the United States. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of the Census. Reference HA 202 .A5

This is an annual publication. The issues published after 1993 have detailed entries in the index at the back of the book, under American Indian, Eskimo, Aleut population. The entries refer the reader not just to tables of population figures, but also to statistics on college enrollment, income, crime, etc.


Directories

Hirshfelder, Arleen. (1993). The Native American almanac; a portrait of Native America today. New York: Prentice Hall. Reference E 76 .H59 1993

This is an excellent source of addresses, and information about, organizations dealing with Native American affairs. It includes government agencies, non-profit organizations, educational organizations, and tribal councils. There is a list of tribes with a mailing address for each one.

Minority organizations: a national directory. (1992). Garrett Park, MD: Garrett Park Press. Reference E 184 .A1 M544

Organizations are listed in alphabetical order. For a list of those pertaining to Native Americans, consult the last index at the back of the book, the "Minority membership organization index". Name, address, telephone number and, for some, contact names are provided.

A directory of Hispanic and American Indian higher education programs. (1980). Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico. Reference LC 3731 .D57

This work provides information on college and university programs in Native American studies.

Reference encyclopedia of the American Indian. (1967). New York: B. Klein and Company. Reference E 76.2 R4 1967

A lot of the information in this book regarding organisations is out of date. However, it is useful for biographies of people from all cultures engaged in Native American affairs up until the 1960s. A bibliography is included.


USING THE LIBRARY CATALOG, CUNY+

CUNY+ is the computerized catalog which John Jay shares with all of the CUNY libraries. There is an introductory guide to using CUNY+ available at the reference desk.

DPAC

Use DPAC to locate books. DPAC is one of the databases available on the CUNY+ system. DPAC can be searched for books located in all of the CUNY libraries, not just John Jay library. Students of John Jay College can use their ID cards to gain access to any of these libraries, and can borrow books from any of them.

Keyword searching in DPAC: This is the search method to use if you are unsure of the Library of Congress subject heading. It also enables you to restrict your search to books in John Jay Library. Type in words which describe the information you are looking for. For example, if you are interested in the history of the Cherokees, type:

K=Cherokee and history

The computer searches DPAC for the records containing the word Cherokee and the word history. It then displays a list of the titles of the books (about 240 books are found with this search). Type in the line number of the title which interests you to see the full record where you will find the book's location and call number.

To restrict the search to books in John Jay Library, use the phrase and JJ in a keyword search.

K=Cherokee and history and JJ

The search retrieves only fourteen titles, but all fourteen books are located within John Jay Library.

When searching for information on a specific tribe, keep in mind that some tribes may be known by different names, or the name may have several spelling variations. For example, Navaho, Navajo and Navajoh all describe the same tribe. The Tohono O'Odham were formerly called Papago by non-Native Americans. Regardless of which version of the name is now be considered the correct one, it is worth searching under all the variations of the name. Check the encyclopedias mentioned in this guide for information on the variety of names which have been used for each community.

If you would like to browse the bookshelves, go to the call number areas E76 to E99 in both the Reference Area and the stacks/circulating area, where you will find works on the Native Americans of North America. Call numbers E1 to E74 include books on the history and archaelogy of early Americans in North, South, and Middle America.

Subject searching in DPAC: DPAC can be searched using Library of Congress subject headings. To locate articles listed under the Library of Congress subject heading Indians of North America type in

S=Indians of North America

This subject heading is subdivided further into subheadings. Some of the subheadings are:

Indians of North America--Criminal justice systems
Indians of North America--Civil rights
Indians of North America--Dictionaries
Indians of North America--Encyclopedias
Indians of North America--Government relations
Indians of North America--Religion and mythology
Indians of North America--Rites and ceremonies

To display complete book titles, type one of the line numbers which can be seen on the left hand side of the screen.


DPER

Use DPER to locate articles published in magazines and journals. Search it using a keyword search, or a subject heading search.

Keyword searching in DPER: Type in K= followed by some keywords describing the information you would like to find.

K=Indians and North America and crime
K=Navaho? and history

You can search using either of the terms Indians or North Americans. Using the term Indians finds more articles.

Subject searching in DPER: Type in S= followed by a Library of Congress subject heading. For example:

S=Indians of North America
S=peyotism

The list of all Library of Congress subject headings is kept beside the Reference Desk.

John Jay Library does not have all of the magazines and journals included in the DPER database. There are booklets located beside most of the CUNY+ terminals that list the journals and magazines indexed in DPER that are available in John Jay library. This booklet also lists the locations and call numbers of the journals and magazines that the Library has.

DNEW

Use this database to find articles published in newspapers. Use keyword searching or subject searching. For example:

K=Native Americans and casinos
S=Native Americans

DNEW uses the subject heading Native Americans, instead of the subject heading Indians of North America which is used in DPAC and DPER.

There are twenty seven newspapers indexed in the DNEW database. John Jay library has seven of these. Ask at the reference desk for the list of the seven newspapers that we do have.

Ethnic Newswatch is a database that contains the full text of articles published in ethnic newpapers in North America. It includes some Native American newspapers. Access the database from the CD-ROM stations beside the reference desk. For more information.


BIBLIOGRAPHIES

Bibliographies list, and often analyse, works in a specific subject area. They may include books or articles or both. They can be very useful in alerting the researcher to the existence of materials that he/she might not otherwise have come across. If you locate a book or article that is not available in John Jay Library,it can be obtained for you through interlibrary loan. As this may take about three weeks, do not depend on obtaining works through interlibrary loan if you have a tight deadline.

The most useful bibliographies are annotated. Annotated bibliographies provide analytical information about the work, including what material it covers, whether the work is scholarly or popular, whether it is considered an important work in its field, etc. Bibliographies are particularly important as a finding aid to the older journal articles which are not indexed in computerised databases, which rarely include material more than 20 years old.

Bibliographies can be located using DPAC and either of the following searches:

S=Indians of North America--bibliography
K=Indians and North America and bibliography and JJ

Most of the reference books previously mentioned have bibliographies, either at the end of the book, or at the end of each chapter or section.

Once you have located in a bibliography a work which interests you, the next stage is to obtain the work. Check in DPAC to see if it is available in the John Jay Library, or any of the CUNY Libraries. If it is not in John Jay Library, fill out an interlibrary loan form at the Reference Desk. The interlibrary loan staff at John Jay Library can find out what library has the work and can borrow it for you. It takes an average of three weeks for a book or article to arrive at John Jay Library through the interlibrary loan system.

Some bibliographies covering different ethnic groups or minorites in the United States, or the history of the United States, have a section devoted to Native Americans; some do not.

Some bibliographies available in the Lloyd Sealy library:

Prucha, Francis Paul.  (1987). Handbook for research in
     American history; a guide to bibliographies and other
     reference works.  Lincoln: University of  
     Nebraska Press.  Reference E 178 .P87 1987

Chapter 25 is devoted to Native Americans. There are few annotations.

Miller, W. C. (1976). Comprehensive bibliography for the study of American minorities. New York: New York University Press. Reference E 184 .A1 M5 1976

The second volume contains a chapter on Native Americans, with good annotations. It was published in 1976, and is not a good source for current materials.

Murdock, George P. (1972). Ethnographic bibliography of North America. 3rd edition. New Haven: Human Relations Area Files. Reference GN 560 .N6 M8 1972

Entries are arranged according to tribe, with an index to tribal names at the back of the book. Only peoples indigenous to North America are included. There are no annotations. Books and periodicals are included, up until 1960. Useful for identifying material on specific tribes. At the end of the book there is a map showing the the geographical locations of the each tribe at the time of their first extensive contact with Europeans. This work was published as one in a series of Behavior Science Bibliographies, produced by the Human Relations Area Files institution. This institution collects and disseminates anthropological information.

Thornton, Russell . (1979). Bibliography of social science research and writings on American Indians. Minneapolis: Center for Urban and Regional Affairs. Reference E 98 .S67 T45 1979

This bibliography covers articles in scholarly journals from the mid-nineteenth century through 1976. Arranged according to the subject matter of the journals.

Psychosocial research on American Indian and Alaska native youth: an indexed guide to recent dissertations. (1984). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Reference E 98 .Y68 P78 1984

Psychosocial research examines aspects of psychological or social behavior. This bibliography is annotated. It includes abstracts of the dissertations. It covers 345 dissertations completed between 1960 and 1982. Keep in mind that most of these dissertations are not in the John Jay Library.

Green, Rayna. (1983). Native American women: a contextual bibliography. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Reference E 98 .W6 G73 1983

The annotations are short, with entries arranged in alphabetical order of author's names. There is a subject index .

Fenton, William N. (1971). American Indian and white relations to 1830, needs and opportunities for study; an essay. New York: Russell and Russell. Reference E 77 .F4

The entries are annotated and a lengthy essay is included .

Sutton, Imre. (1975). Indian land tenure: bibliographical essays and a guide to the literature. New York: Clearwater Pub. Stacks E 98 .L3 S92

Books, articles and government documents are included, with subject, tribal and geographic indexes.

Native North Americans: crime, conflict and justice: a research bibliography. 5th ed. (1993). Burnaby, B.C.: Northern Justice Society. Reference E 98 .C87 N37 1993

The entries are arranged according to subject, and cover the Native Peoples of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. There is no index, so use the list of contents instead. There are no annotations.

Mail, Patricia D. (1980). Tulapai to Tokay: a bibliography of alcohol use and abuse among Native Americans of North America. New Haven: HRAF Press. Reference E 98 .L7 M34 1980

A lengthy literature review, subject and author indexes are included.

Lobb, Michael. (1989). Native American youth and alcohol: an annotated bibliography. New York: Greenwood Press. Reference E 98 .L7 L6 1989

A literature review, abstracts, subject and author indexes are included.

U.S. National Archives and Records Service. (1984). American Indians: select catalog of National Archives microfilm publications. Washington, D.C.: National Archives Trust Fund Board, General Services Administration. Reference E 93 .U945 1984

There are no annotations. This work consists of a list of documents held at the U.S. National Archives, mainly relating to government agencies and the military.

Kluckhohn, Clyde. (1972). A bibliography of the Navaho Indians. New York: AMS Press Inc. Reference E 99 .N3 K53 1972

The emphasis in this work is on anthropology. It covers material, including unpublished manuscripts, up until 1940. There are brief annotations.

There is a series of excellent bibliographies on Native Americans produced by the Newberry Library. All in the series follow the same format - the first part of the book discusses different aspects of the subject and the literature relating to it, while the second part lists the works themselves. There are three of them in John Jay library:

Thornton, Russell.  (1980). Sociology of American
     Indians: a critical bibliography.  Bloomington: 
     Published for the Newberry Library by Indiana University 
     Press.  Reference E 98 .S67 T46 1980

Thornton, Russell. (1982). The urbanization of American Indians; a critical bibliography. Bloomington: Published for the Newberry Library by Indiana University Press. Reference E 98 .U72 T53 1982

Surtees, R. J. (1982). Canadian Indian Policy: a critical bibliography. Bloomington: Published for the Newberry Library by Indiana University Press. Reference E 92 .S9 1982


BIOGRAPHICAL MATERIAL

Biographical materials can be easily located using a keyword search in DPAC:

K=Indians and North America and biography and JJ

The results of this search consists of a list of biographies of Native Americans available in John Jay library.

The following is a partial list of some biographical materials in John Jay library which contain information about Native Americans in North America.


Bataille, Gretchen M.  (1984). American Indian women: 
     telling their lives.  Lincoln: University of Nebraska 
     Press.  Stacks E 98 .W8 B37 1984

Indian lives: essays on nineteenth and twentieth century Native American leaders. (1985). Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. Stacks E 89 .I43 1985

I tell you now: autobiographical essays by Native American writers. (1987). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Stacks E 89 .I24 1987

Dockstader, Frederick J. (1977). Great North American Indians: profiles in life and leadership. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Reference E 89 .D55

Josephy, Alvin M. (1961). The patriot chiefs; a chronicle of American Indian leadership. New York: Viking Press. Stacks E 89 .J78

Krupat, Arnold. (1985). For those who come after: a study of Native American autobiography. Berkeley: University of California Press. Stacks E 89.5 .K78 1985

This work is a critical analysis of Native American autobiographies.

For biographies of prominent individuals, these general biographical reference works may help:

National cylopedia of American biography. (1898-1984). New York: J.T. White. 62 volumes and index. Reference E 176 .N28

A one volume index to the entire work was published in 1984. In addition to listing personal names, the index has some subject headings. One of these is Indians of North America. The names of some tribes are also listed as subject headings. The main characteristic of the information here is the emphasis on the Caucasian, non-Native American population. For example, wars are alluded to as they affected the lives and careers of the Caucasian settlers and soldiers. There are some biographies of prominent Native Americans, but very few.

Dictionary of American biography. (1958-1980). New York: Scribner. 17 volumes and index. Reference E 176 .D563

There are only a few biographies of Native Americans here. Only the most famous are included, e.g., Sitting Bull and Geronimo. The index to this work consists of a personal name index only; there are no subject headings.

Captive narratives comprise a form of writing which has developed into a genre in its own right. Allthough not necessarily completely accurate, they do provide a description of Native American life styles from the captive's viewpoint. Here are two examples of the genre in John Jay library:

Hunter, John D.  (1973).   Memoirs of a captivity among 
     the Indians of North America.  New York:
     Schocken Books.  Stacks  E 87 .H93 1973

Heard, J.Norman. (1973). White into Red; a study of white persons captured by Indians. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press. Stacks E 85 .H38 1973


GOVERNMENT POLICY INCLUDING INDIAN TREATIES AND LAW

The interaction between the Government of the United States and the indigenous peoples of North America is an important area of study, and one which is well documented in John Jay library. A related area is that of Native American activism. A good subject heading to use in CUNY+ is

S=Indians of North America--Government relations

Some relevant sources available in John Jay library:

Washburn, Wilcomb E. (1979). The American Indian and the United States; a documentary history. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Reference E 93 .W27 1979

This four volume work consists of a compilation of reprinted official government and legal documents portraying the history of the relationships between the U.S. Government and Native Americans, 1826-1973. The documents are arranged in chronological order, and include the text of treaties, legal decisions, reports of the Commissioners of Indian Affairs, Congressional debates, etc.

Prucha, F.P. (1984). The Great Father; the United States Government and the American Indians. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Two volumes. Stacks E 93 .P9654 1984

This two volume work covers the history of U.S. Government relations with the American Indians up to and including 1980.

Native Americans and public policy. (1992). Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press. Stacks E 93 .N33 1992

This is a compilation of essays on different aspects of contemporary government relations.

Deloria, Vine. (1985). American Indian policy in the twentieth century. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Stacks E 93 .A44 1985

Rosenthal, Harvey D. (1990). Their day in court; a history of the Indian Claims Commission. New York: Garland Publishers. Stacks KF 8208 .R67 1990

Deloria, Vine. (1970). Custer died for your sins; an Indian manifesto. New York: Macmillan. Stacks E 93 .D36 1970

The author is a member of the Standing Rock Sioux tribe, a lawyer, theologian, and prolific commentator and writer on contemporary Indian issues. There are a number of his works in John Jay Library. This particular work is aimed at a young audience and discusses attitudes of American Indians towards whites.

French, Laurence. (1994). The winds of injustice: American Indians and the U.S. Government. New York: Garland Publishers. Stacks E 99 .S67 F74 1994

Dippie, Brian W. (1991). The vanishing American: white attitudes and U.S. Government policy. Lawrence: University of Kansas press. Stacks E 93 .D58 1991

Josephy, Alvin M. (1971). Red Power; the American Indians' fight for freedom. New York: McGraw Hill. Stacks E 93 .J67 1971

Cohen, Felix S. (1982). Handbook of Federal Indian law. Charlottesville, Virginia: Michie. Reference Law KF 8205 .C6 1982


LITERATURE

In recent decades, many works of poetry and fiction written by Native Americans have been published. The Library has some of these works. They are shelved amongst the American Literature books, at call number PS. To get more precise call numbers, use DPAC. Search DPAC using the following subject headings:

S= Indians of North America--Fiction
S= Indians of North America--Poetry

Here is is a brief sample:

That's what she said: contemporary poetry and fiction by Native American women. (1984). Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Stacks PS 508 .I5146 1984

Momaday, Natachee Scott. (1969). House made of dawn. New York: Harper and Row. Stacks PS 3563 .O47 H6

This novel received the Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 1969.

Welch, James. (1974). Winter in the blood. New York: Penguin. Stacks PS 3573 .E44 W5

Erdrich, Louise. (1984). Love medicine: a novel. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Stacks PS 3555 .R42 L6 1984

Silko, Leslie Marmon. (1981). Storyteller. New York: Seaver Books. Stacks PS 3569 .I44 S8 1981

Works of literary criticism

The following works discuss and analyze Native American literature:

Lincoln, Kenneth. (1983). Native American renaissance. Berkeley: University of California Press. Stacks PS 153 .I52 L6 1983

Velie, Alan R. (1982). Four American literary masters: N. Scott Momaday, James Welch, Leslie Marmon Silko and Gerald Vizenor. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Stacks PS 508 .I5 V4 1982

Allen, Paula Gunn. (1986). The sacred hoop; recovering the feminine in American Indian traditions. Boston: Beacon Press. Stacks E 98 .W8 A44 1986


PERIODICALS AND INDEXES

Periodicals

There are many journals and magazines dedicated to Native American subject matter. This list represents only those held by John Jay library.

NARF legal review (Native American Rights Fund) 1983- present. Bound KF 8201 .A3 N37

Indian law reporter. Vol. 6 (1979)-Vol. 16 (1989). Reference Law KF 8201 .A315

Indian historian. Vol.1 (1964) - Vol. 4 (1967). New series: vol. 1 (1967) - vol. 12 (1979). Bound E 75 .A513

Ethnohistory. Vol. 17 (1970) - vol. 21 (1974). Bound E 51 .E8

Annual law enforcement services report of the Division of Law Enforcement Services of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. 1973-1976. Special Collections HV 7245 .I5a

Some general anthropology journals which many contain articles on North American Indians:

American anthropologist. Vol. 1 (1888) to present. Bound GN 1 .A5

American Ethnologist. Vol. 1, 1974, to present. Bound GN 1 .A53

Southwestern Journal of Anthropology. (after 1972, called the Journal of Anthropological Research) Bound GN 1 .J6

The following serial publications contain many articles on Native American anthropology and archeology. While we do not subscribe to these publications, we do have reprints of some of the more important articles originally published in them. Our reprints of these works are cataloged as monographs, i.e., they are shelved in the John Jay stacks, not in the periodical area. Locate the call numbers by searching for them in DPAC using keyword searches.

eg. K=Smithsonian contributions and anthropology and JJ

Smithsonian Contributions to anthropology. (we have reprints of 12 articles)

U.S. Bureau of Ethnology. Annual report. (we have reprints of 3 articles)

U.S. Bureau of American Ethnology. Bulletin. (we have reprints of 8 articles)


Indexes to Periodical Literature

Indexes to periodical literature can be used to search for relevant articles in journals. Some useful indexes are:

DPER

DPER is one of the databases available in the CUNY+ system. It can be searched in the same way as DPAC, the book catalog. Keep in mind as you search that we have very few of the journals devoted exclusively to Native American affairs, although some of them are indexed in DPER. However, you will find many articles about Native Americans published in a wide variety of other journals and magazines that are indexed in this database. As you search, consult the booklet listing journals indexed in DPER that are held in John Jay Library.

A useful subject heading is:

S=Indians of North America

Browse down the list to see the subheadings for this term.

e.g. Indians of North America--tribal government
Indians of North America--women

ProQuest

Like DPER, this database indexes a broad range of general journals and magazines. Some of the articles are available in full text within the database; for other articles, print the citation, and consult the list of holdings in John Jay Library to see if we have the journal.

Sociofile (1974 - Present)

This is a computerized index to periodical literature in the fields of sociology and anthropology. It is available on the CD-ROM terminals near the reference desk.

Criminal Justice Abstracts(1968-1995)

This database is available on CD-ROM and in a print version. It indexes some articles about Native Americans and the criminal justice system.

NCJRS - The National Criminal Justice Reference Service

There is a large number of articles, reports and other publications indexed in this CD-ROM database that relate to Native Americans, in the context of criminal justice. Some of the indexing terms used are Indian Affairs, Indian justice, and tribal court system.

Ethnic Newswatch

This is another computerized index available on the CD-ROM terminals at the reference desk. It is a full text index to newspapers and other periodicals published by the ethnic and minority press in North America. It includes a number of Native American publications, such as the Cherokee Observer, Abya Yala News, and News from Indian Country.

To search the database for articles about Native Americans of North America, type in Native people on the ethnic group line, and United States, or North America in the geographic location line. Then type in your keywords, on the keyword line and press enter to carry out the search.

Abstracts in Anthropology(1970-Present)

This is an index in print format. Index Area AI 1 .A28

America, History and Life. (1964-1992)

The library now has this database on CD-ROM. Print version at Index Area AI 1 .A45


Locating newspaper articles

DNEW

This is the CUNY+ newpaper index which can be used to locate relevant newspaper articles. DNEW indexes twenty seven different newspapers from 1989 to the present. The John Jay Library has seven of these newspapers in John Jay Library; ask at the reference desk for a list of these. Search DNEW as you would DPER or DPAC. For details on how to search, see the section on how to use CUNY+ at the begining of this guide. There is one difference to keep in mind: DNEW uses the phrase Native Americans as a subject heading rather than Indians of North America.

DNEW is good for locating information about current controversies in American Indian affairs in U.S. national newspapers. Use Ethnic Newswatch (see below) for newspaper coverage from the Native American press, e.g., the controversy over the planned nuclear waste site at Yucca Mountains, Nevada.

The New York Times Index

This index is in paper format. Use it to locate articles published in the New York Times from 1851 up to 1989. From 1989 to the present, use the DNEW database, available on CUNY+. Index Area AI 1.N4


INTERNET RESOURCES

There are innumerable Internet sites dedicated to Native American affairs. They can be exceptionally good for obtaining up-to-date information, particularly on current events or controversies. As with all sources of information, remember to check the date of publication/production. This will tell you just how up to date the information is. Documents posted on the Internet become available immediately. In contrast, publishing a book usually takes months, if not years. The Internet has the advantage of speed over published sources.

World Wide Web sites

The sites most easily accessed are those on the World Wide Web. As with everything on the Internet, these sites are constantly changing. The best sites are kept up-to-date, and their links to other sites are regularly checked. If a site is not maintained, the links may lapse, due to address changes. The following is a list of World Wide Web sites were well maintained in June 1996:

Index of Native American resources on the Internet

This site provides links to hundreds of Native American sites, arranged by subject. The preliminary menu allows you to choose from about a dozen options, including Cultural Resources, Government Resources, Museums, etc. Choosing from any of these options brings you to more detailed site lists. For example, choosing the Native American Cultural Resources option leads you to a list including multicultural sites, such as Native Web, Arctic Circle, and Native American Net, as well as tribe-specific sites. URL: http://hanksville.phast.umass.edu/misc/NAresources.html

NativeWeb

Information here is arranged according to 14 different subject groups. These groups give access to newsletters, e-zines, organizations, information about gopher and FTP sites, mailing lists, etc. as well as the more traditional documentary sites. URL: http://www.nativeweb.org/

American Indian Science and Engineering Society

This site contains excellent links to many interesting Native American sites. Despite the name of the site, there is more here than science and engineering information. Choose the option "links to other WWW sites". URL: http://bioc02.uthscsa.edu/aisesnet.html

Bill Henderson's Aboriginal Links

Bill Henderson is a Canadian lawyer specialising in Native American legal issues. This page provides links to many sites of legal interest and government policy issues. It includes links to the text of a number of treaties. URL: http://www.bloorstreet.com/300block/aborl.htm

The Constitution of the Iroquois Nation

This document contains the full text of the Constitution of the Iroquois Nation. Other nations have also drawn up constitutions. To locate them, do a Web search using the word "constitution" and the name of the nation or tribe. URL: http://www.axess.com/mohawk.constitution.html

If you are looking for sites concerned with a specific subject or tribe, try doing a websearch using any of the search engines available. Keep in mind tha the names of many of the tribes have been adopted by schools, boy scout organizations, etc. so be prepared to sift through a lot of irrelevant material. It may just be easier to go to the NativeWeb or Hanksville sites listed above, and go through their subject lists until you find what you're interested in.


Other Internet Resources

There is more to the Internet than the World Wide Web: Gopher sites and listservs are two other resources available on the internet.

Gopher Sites

Although many gopher sites have been replaced by the World Wide Web sites, there are still active gopher sites, some of which can also be accessed through the Web. Gopher sites are particularly useful for people who have access to the Internet, but not to the World Wide Web. There are no graphics, just text. Two particularly good sites are:

Native American Net server

To access this site, type gopher alpha1.csd.uwm.edu Then choose the UWM information option from the menu. Then choose the Native American Net server. (this is towards the end of the list).

This server gives you access to numerous documents and sites, e.g., access to articles and cases on Indian law, including a survey of landmark cases, and peyote-freedom of religion cases. It also provides access to the archived texts of some Native American newsletters.

Native Education Centre Information System

To access this site, type gopher://gopher.native-ed.bc.ca This site includes book and film reviews, and an "electronic clippings file". This file contains articles originally published elsewhere on a wide variety of subjects. It is particularly good for information related to current controversies.

Listservs on the Internet

Listservs are electronic discussion groups. If you have access to the internet at home, you may be able to use listservs. You join a listserv by subscribing to it. People e-mail queries, statements, notices, etc. to the listserver, which then sends a copy of the e-mail to each subscriber, who has the option of responding to the sender either directly, or by posting an e-mail on the server for everyone to read. To subscribe to a listserv, you must obtain the e-mail address of the server for the list.

Here are some of the many listservs dealing with Native American affairs:

Tribal law

This is a forum for people interested in the laws and policies effecting Native Americans. Subscribe to it by sending an e-mail to: listserv@thecity.sfsu.edu Leave the subject line blank. In the body of the message, type "subscribe triballaw"

Subscribe to listserv@spruce.hsu.edu with "subscribe indiannet" in the body of the message. This discussion group covers topics of general interest to the Indian communities. The Indiannet itself is a computer network designed by Native Americans for themselves. It is accessible through the Native American Net Server gopher.

Nativenet

The NativeNet World Wide Web site lists 6 listservs which the NativeNet supports. Five of the listservs are active, and cover news, general issues, health, education, and languages. The sixth is no longer active, but it has extensive archives which can be accessed. It was devoted to discussion about the Colombus Quincentenary.


LIBRARIES IN NEW YORK CITY WITH EXTENSIVE HOLDINGS OF NATIVE AMERICAN MATERIALS

New York City has a number of libraries with extensive holdings of information regarding Native Americans. These are some of the best known libraries, all of which are open to the public.

New York Public Library.  The Research Libraries. 
     5th Avenue and 42nd Street.  (212) 661-7720 for opening
     hours. This library has one of the most extensive 
     collections in the world on this topic.  It is most 
     useful for graduate students and researchers embarking 
     on protracted research projects.  This collection is NOT for 
     undergraduates.  Working with this collection is rewarding
     only if you are prepared to be patient, and devote a long
     period of time to it.  Be prepared to spend days if not 
     weeks here, rather than hours.

New York Public Library. Performing Arts Research Center. 40 Lincoln Center Plaza, New York, NY 10023. (212) 870 1630. Telephone for opening hours. Contains recordings and videos of American Indian music and dance.

Huntington Free Library. 9 Westchester Square, Bronx, NY 10461. (718) 829 7770. Telephone for information regarding access. This is the library portion of the former Museum of the American Indian, in New York city. The Museum itself is in the process of moving most of its holdings to Washington, leaving a smaller museum in downtown New York called the George Gustav Heye Center of the National Museum of the American Indian.

Library. American Museum of Natural History. Central Park West at 79th Street. (212) 769-5400. Telephone for information regarding access.

It is highly recommended that you exhaust the available information sources in John Jay Library before going to any of these libraries. They are all research libraries, with specialised holdings. You will maximize the benefits of visiting them if you know as much as possible about your subject before going there. Keep in mind, that as research libraries, they do not circulate books. You will need to do all of your reading on site, or photocopy the material there.


MUSEUMS IN NEW YORK CITY WITH EXTENSIVE DISPLAYS OF NATIVE AMERICAN MATERIALS

George Gustav Heye Center of the National Museum of the American Indian (a branch of the Smithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian ). 1 Bowling Green, Lower Manhattan. (212) 668-6624. Admission is free.

American Indian Community House. Gallery and Museum. 708 Broadway, between East 4th Street and Astor Place. (212) 598-0100. This is one of a number of centers set up by Native Americans across the country to serve urban Native American communities. In addition they provide outreach services to the general public. The administrative offices of the House also keep files of information on current controversies and items of interest to the American Indian community. These files may be accessed by the public, but you must call first for an appointment.

American Museum of Natural History. Central Park West at 79th Street. (212) 769-5000. There is a suggested contribution of $7.


(c) E. Sexton June, 1996

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