Law Enforcement News

Vol. XXVII, No. 567, 568 A publication of John Jay College of Criminal Justice/CUNY December 15/31, 2001

[LEN Home] - [Masthead] - [Past Issues] SUBSCRIBE

In this issue:

Frozen moments: Images from 2001.
DARE officials yield on the issue of curriculum overhaul.
Reduced funding for policing’s “secret weapon.
Terror attacks prove little deterrent for drug traffic.
USA’s porous borders get a second look.
A regular riot: Troubles aplenty in Cincinnati and elsewhere.
A change in fortunes for a troubled FBI.
800 megahertz seems like an unlucky number.
Facing up to some harsh new surveillance realities.
Racial profiling is more than just a black and white issue.
Policing goes back and forth on college requirements.
Can the thin blue line get much thinner?
How terror attacks added to a shifting gun-control landscape.
The tug of war between police and the media over privacy issues.
Legislating against terror with the 2001 Patriot Act.
People & Places: Some of the personalities who made their mark on 2001.
DNA concerns widen and deepen the gene pool.
Judges and legislatures still wrestle with nuances of the sex-offender issue.
Militias have dwindled, but there’s still plenty of hate out there.
Who’s looking over policing’s shoulders? It seems like just about everybody.
Columbine is history, but school violence persists.
Order in the court: The Justices have their say.
Giant technological leaps sometimes come in small packages.
Justice by the Numbers: A statistical profile of criminal justice in the post-Sept. 11 era.

Justice by the Numbers
A statistical profile of criminal justice in the United States, vintage 2001 (Special post-Sept. 11 edition)

1: The number of Sept. 11-related terrorists indicted in the United States to date. Zacarias Moussaoui, the so-called “20th hijacker,” is being tried in criminal court rather than by a military tribunal.

4: The number of commercial jetliners involved in the terrorist attacks on Sept. 11.

$5.75: The minimum wage paid to baggage screening personnel at airports by Argenbright Security, the nation’s largest and most frequently criticized airport-security company.

10: The percentage of Washington-based prosecutors, investigators and analysts from the Justice Department — representing roughly $2.5 billion in resources — who are to be transferred to field offices, as part of a “wartime reorganization” of the department by Attorney General John Ashcroft.

13: The number of federal intelligence-gathering agencies, each with its own chain of command — a bureaucratic balkanization said to have contributed to the system-wide failure to detect any signs of the impending terrorist attacks.

18: The number of confirmed cases of anthrax since the initial outbreak in mid-October. Of these, five died

18: The percentage decrease in the number of civilian complaints of misconduct against the New York City police officers in September and October compared to the same period a year earlier. Observers noted that the decrease might be due in part to the fact that the civilian complaint review board’s office in Manhattan was closed for several weeks because of its proximity to ground zero. Another reason, some say, was a resurgent respect for the role of police in society in the aftermath of the terrorist attack.

19: The number of hijackers who took over four commercial jetliners.

44: The number of people on board United Airlines Flight 93, which crashed in rural Pennsylvania

56: Percentage of Americans responding to a New York Times/CBS News poll who say they would be willing to require everyone in the US to carry an electronic identification card in order to reduce the threat of terrorism.

58: The percentage of those responding to a USA Today poll in September who think that Arabs, including American citizens, should be singled out for special security checks before boarding airplanes.

65: The number of law enforcement officers killed in the attack on the World Trade Center.

68: The percentage of those in a Los Angeles Times poll taken days after the Sept. 11 attacks who said they favored law enforcement “randomly stopping people who may fit the profile of suspected terrorists.”

76: The number of organizations and individuals whose bank accounts were ordered frozen in the United States and cooperating countries in the first month after the attacks.

79: Percentage of Americans responding to a New York Times/CBS News poll who feel they will have to forfeit some of their personal freedoms to make the country safer.

90: The number of federal investigations into hate crimes that were commenced in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks.

186: The number of names, all reportedly those of aliens linked to the ongoing terrorism investigations, that the officials at the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms sought to check against gun-purchase records in the FBI’s National Instant Check System. The Justice Department ruled that under relevant federal law, such reviews were not permissible.

200: The number of linguists fluent in Arabic and other Middle-Eastern tongues that the FBI has said it wants to hire. The job announcement by the bureau brought 1,300 applications.

200: The number of public health workers being trained by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the recognition and containment of smallpox outbreaks.

242: The number of valid formats of state identification in the U.S., a fact that officials say makes it far too easy to counterfeit IDs or to obtain legitimate IDs fraudulently.

350: The estimated number of search-and-rescue dogs, many from faraway states, deployed at the World Trade Center site. The American Kennel Club and the Ralston Purina Co. are funding a $100,000, three-year study to measure physical and psychological problems suffered by search dogs at ground zero.

400: The number of National Guard troops stationed along the 4,000-mile border between the U.S. and Canada, which has more than 100 crossing points that since Sept. 11 have been staffed 24 hours a day.

500: The estimated number of New York City police officers who filed retirement papers in October, nearly three times as many as the number who did in October 2000.

790: The number of people treated for injuries at the five medical facilities closest to the World Trade Center in the two days after the terrorist attack, according to a federal report. Forty-nine percent were treated for breathing difficulties, and 26 percent for eye injuries.

1,200: The estimated number of people arrested or detained in connection with the ongoing terrorism investigation, as of the end of November. One hundred and four people face federal criminal charges ranging from fraud to forgery, of whom 55 are in custody and 49 are being sought or have been released on bail. More than 500 of the detainees have been released.

4,000: The number of airplane cockpit doors reinforced with security bars since the Sept. 11 attacks. The airlines are required by mid-2003 to install doors made of impenetrable materials.

4,200:The number of vessels that the Coast Guard boarded in the Atlantic in the first two months after Sept. 11. At least 53 ships were detained and 10 people were turned over to law enforcement agencies.

5,000: The number of Middle Eastern men who entered the United States on temporary visas that the Justice Department has said it wants to question. More than 700 of those on the list live in the Detroit area.

5,000: The number of immigration inspectors assigned to cover the borders with Mexico and Canada. The inspectors handle more than a half-billion border crossings each year.

$5,000: The amount of money, believed to be leftover expense funds, wired back to the United Arab Emirates by each of three hijackers before the Sept. 11 attacks.

15,800: Reports of anthrax received by the U.S. Postal Service — an average of 500 to 600 calls a day in the eight weeks immediately following the first reported case in mid-October. The Postal Service reported that 58 people were arrested and charged nationwide in connection with anthrax hoaxes or threats.

28,000: The number of airport baggage-screening personnel who will become federal employees under new anti-terrorism legislation.

35,000: The number of military reservists called to active duty on Sept. 15 — a call-up that could hurt already strapped police departments.

55,000: The number of NYPD personnel who will undergo mandatory psychological counseling to address post-traumatic stress stemming from the World Trade Center attack.

117,000: The number of e-mailed tips processed by the FBI as part of the ongoing terrorism investigation. Private-sector companies, including Internet service p[roviders and telecommunications firms, donated millions of dollars in services and equipment to help the FBI handle the e-mail volume.

$500,000: The estimated cost of financing the terrorist attacks. The money was used for the hijackers’ travel within the United States, living expenses and training during the lengthy planning period.

1 million: The number of tons of debris removed from the World Trade Center site.

1.6 million: The estimated number of jobs that will be wiped out in 2002 as a result of the Sept. 11 attacks, according to the Milken Institute, a Santa Monica, Calif., think tank. The job losses are expected to hit hardest in the tourism and airline industries, but also affect such sectors of the economy as entertainment, advertising, dining and financial services.

$6.2 million: The amount of cash, money orders and checks seized by Customs agents in October and November as part of a program to stop terrorist networks from smuggling U.S. currency out of the country.

$1.5 billion: The projected cost of overtime put in by the 40,000-officer New York City Police Department in the 2001-2002 fiscal year.