Law Enforcement News

Special LEN Supplement A publication of John Jay College of Criminal Justice/CUNY April 30, 2002

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  • Technology

  • Terrorism/Extremism

  • Violence

  • Weapons/Equipment

  • Directory of Publishers


    Cole, Eric (2002). HACKERS BEWARE: DEFENDING YOUR NETWORK FROM THE WILEY HACKER. Indianapolis: New Riders, ISBN: 0735710090
         Cole succeeds in explaining how hackers break into computers, steal information, and deny services to machines’ legitimate users. An intended side effect of his documentary efforts is a feeling for how network-connected computers should be configured for maximum resistance to attack. Cole, who works with the attack-monitoring SANS Institute, conveys to his readers specific knowledge of offensive and defensive weaponry as well as general familiarity with attack strategies and good security practices. Cole’s didactic style is largely conversational, embracing the fact that most computer exploits can be conveyed as stories about what hackers want and the steps they take to achieve their goals. Cole explains all the jargon he uses — a characteristic that alone distinguishes this book from many of its competitors. (Editors of

         With extensive experience implementing large-scale IT projects for the law enforcement community, author Jim Chu has assembled a comprehensive, one-stop guide that enables you to understand the many complexities and hurdles associated with IT systems. In a non-technical language, Law Enforcement Information Technology describes infrastructure components and outlines economic concepts that explain how and why IT adds value. It also includes seminal perspectives on why IT supports community policing, and how public policing is changing to a knowledge-based profession. (From the publisher).

    Drescher, Charles and Zaworski, Martin (2000). THE DESIGN OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT: A GUIDE FOR EXECUTIVES. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas, ISBN: 0398071381
         The authors present a step-by-step process for determining agency needs for information—from gathering to processing to utilization. Having the right information can prove valuable in planning a community policing approach, improving the quality of life in the community, and bridging the gap between police and the public. This book provides details of writing a Request for Proposal (RFP), explaining the reasons behind each vendor requirement and offering advice on how to avoid pitfalls. The authors offer advice about what to look for when choosing a system and address the differences between the two major systems in use today: the computer-aided dispatch and records management systems. Building a project implementation team is key to successfully implementing the new system and points to consider are presented to ensure transition is smooth and effective. The final chapter brings all the elements of the book together and shows how these all fit together to form a totally automated police agency. (Editors of

    Terrorism / Extremism

    Alexander, Yonah, and Hoenig, Milton (2001). SUPER TERRORISM: BIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL AND NUCLEAR. Ardsley, NY: Transnational Publishers, ISBN: 1571052186
         Modern terrorism is poised to enter a new dimension — super terrorism — characterized by covert biological, chemical, radiological or nuclear attacks to achieve mass destruction and casualties. September 11 and its aftermath may be only the beginning. While there is agreement on the possible consequences of super terrorism, there has been robust disagreement on the kind of investment that should be made in preparedness and response to biological, chemical, and nuclear terrorist attacks. This book contains excerpts from authoritative testimony, speeches and reports of political leaders, members of Congress, and leading experts who lay out a roadmap for understanding the nation’s growing concern and response to the threat of super terrorism. (From the publisher)

    Ashton, John and Ferguson, Ian (2001). COVER-UP OF CONVENIENCE: THE HIDDEN SCANDAL OF LOCKERBIE. Edinburgh, Scotland: Mainstream, ISBN: 1840183896
         On Dec. 21, 1988, Pan Am Flight 103 exploded over the town of Lockerbie, Scotland. Twelve years later, Abdel Basset Ali Al-Megrahi was convicted of the murders of the 270 passengers on Flight 103 by a panel of three Scottish law lords. The authors of this work, both freelance journalists, allege that an innocent man has been convicted and that a government cover-up is possibly involved. In a well-laid-out chronological manner, the authors detail information they and other investigators have uncovered regarding suspicious activity around the crash site, warnings that perhaps should have been heeded to prevent the crash, and reports that U.S. government agencies may have had an indirect role in the disaster, among other interesting evidence. The authors lay the blame not on Libyan-based terrorists but on planners in Iran, Syria, and Lebanon. (From Library Journal)

    Baird-Windle, Patricia and Bader, Eleanor J. (2001). TARGETS OF HATRED: ANTI-ABORTION TERRORISM. New York: St. Martin’s Press, ISBN: 0312239254
         This work chronicles events from the front lines in the anti-abortion movement in the United States and Canada over the past 40 years, describing major and minor crimes against family-planning clinics and personnel. The authors also review relevant court cases, laws, and law enforcement activity and provide excerpts from anti-abortion literature, news accounts, and extensive personal reflections on events. Professional anti-abortion activists, religious groups, political parties, and public officials all play a role. Much of the material consists of accounts from 190 interviews conducted by the authors with abortion providers. While there are other books on clinic violence, none covers such a broad time and geographic span. (From Library Journal)

    Bergen, Peter L. (2001). HOLY WAR, INC.: INSIDE THE SECRET WORLD OF OSAMA BIN LADEN. New York: Free Press, ISBN: 0743205022
         This book offers a mature, balanced description of bin Laden’s background; a concise summary of the organization of the al-Qaeda terrorist network as it has developed in the Middle East, Europe, and America; and a brief narrative of terrorist events through September 11. Bergen asserts that bin Laden’s hostility emanates from his religious opposition to an American military presence in Saudi Arabia, American policy toward Israel, and the “un-Islamic” behavior of Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Bergen personalizes his story with an account of his 1997 interview with bin Laden and the contacts he made with bin Laden’s militant Islamic associates. Bergen has pulled together a significant amount of solid information, which he presents with perception and without grand swings of passion. (From Library Journal)

    Bodansky, Yossef (2001). BIN LADEN: THE MAN WHO DECLARED WAR ON AMERICA. Rocklin, Calif.: Forum, ISBN: 0761535810
         Who is Osama bin Laden — the only terrorist leader ever to have declared a holy war against America? What drives him and those he leads to hate a West that helped educate, enrich, and arm them? In meticulous detail, terrorism expert Yossef Bodansky uncovers the events in bin Laden’s life that turned the once-promising engineering student into a cold-blooded leader of radical Islam. Including new information about bin Laden’s pursuit of chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons, covert deals between the U.S. and Islamic terrorists, and American foreign policy blunders that have cost countless lives, this book is a sobering wake-up call. (From the publisher)

    Bolz, Frank; Dudonis, Kenneth J. and Schulz, David P. THE COUNTERTERRORISM HANDBOOK: TACTICS, PROCEDURES, AND TECHNIQUES. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press, ISBN: 0849309646
         The only way to deal effectively with terrorism is to have a thorough understanding of its present-day characteristics. Who is involved and what weapons and tactics are they likely to use? The players on the counterterrorism team need to take stock of what is in their tool kits; what works and what doesn’t work; and what new capabilities need to be developed in order to face not only today’s terrorist, but tomorrow’s as well. The handbook lays out a comprehensive strategy of how to deal with an entire range of possible terrorist incidents in a language friendly to first responders, policy makers, and security personnel. It covers everything from bombings and hostage-taking, to nuclear terrorism and what needs to be done before, during, and after an event. (From the publisher)

    Campbell, Kurt and Flournoy, Michèle A. (2001) TO PREVAIL: AN AMERICAN STRATEGY FOR THE CAMPAIGN AGAINST TERRORISM. Washington, D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies, ISBN: 0892064072
         This book takes readers beyond the hourly headlines and day-to-day dramas of the post Sept. 11 environment and helps them to think about the medium and long term implications of the new terrorist threat. Despite the recent successes in Afghanistan and the courageous response to the September events, the fundamental conclusion of this work is that the years ahead will be among the most difficult in the long life of our nation. The authors present a comprehensive look at the areas in which new choices and hard decisions must be made from strengthening law enforcement and intelligence to sustaining a sense of American purpose and devising tailored strategies for key regions of the world. The book’s analysis was informed by the work of the CSIS Task Force on Terrorism, drawing on the full range of CSIS expertise in terrorism, national and international security, regional studies, and religion. (From the publisher)

    Coulson, Danny O. and Shannon, Elaine (2001). NO HEROES: INSIDE THE FBI’S SECRET COUNTER-TERROR FORCE. New York: Pocket Books, ISBN: 0671020625
         A memoir-cum-how-to-manual for the aspiring Dirty Harry of the family. Coulson, a retired FBI agent who founded the bureau’s Hostage Rescue Team, has little patience for soft courts and slimy lawyers…. Coulson reserves a special disdain for paramilitary groups like the Montana Freemen, the Order, and the CSA (or Convenant, Sword and Arm of the Lord), groups responsible for hate crimes across the country. A good-guy player in some of the most newsworthy crimes of the last few decades, Coulson takes us inside events like the shootouts at Ruby Ridge and Waco, the “Dog Day Afternoon” bank robbery, and the World Trade Center and Oklahoma City bombings. Without apparent irony, he relates how the FBI got into the SWAT-team business in the first place: because federal law prohibits the use of the military in domestic affairs without specific presidential order, police forces throughout the nation have militarized. Coulson examines where these forces have performed poorly, such as at Waco, and where they have performed well, such as in the aftermath of the Oklahoma City bombing. (From Kirkus Reviews)

    Dyson, William E. (2001) TERRORISM: AN INVESTIGATOR’S HANDBOOK. Cincinnati: Anderson Publishing, ISBN: 1583605290
         This handbook introduces law enforcement professionals to the field of terrorism investigation. It describes how terrorists operate and how they differ from other criminals; outlines how investigations should be conducted against them; warns law enforcement officers about the pitfalls that await them in conducting probes; offers suggestions that the officer can use to improve the investigation of a terrorist group; and helps the profession better prepare prosecutable cases against terrorists. (

    Gerson, Allan and Adler, Jerry (2001). PRICE OF TERROR: ONE BOMB, ONE PLANE, 270 LIVES, THE HISTORY-MAKING STRUGGLE FOR JUSTICE AFTER PAN AM 103. New York: HarperCollins, ISBN: 0060197617
         Allan Gerson, a former prosecutor of Nazi war crimes, currently a professor of international relations at George Washington University, and Jerry Adler, a senior editor at Newsweek, reconstruct the struggle for justice for the bomb victims and their families after the 1988 terrorist bombing of Pan Am flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland. Gerson, an expert in international law, took up the cause of pursuing the Libyan suspects, even when the U.S. government did little and lawyers told the victims’ families that there was no precedent for suing Libya. Gerson and Adler track the tragedy from the moment the bomb exploded, killing 270, through the trial in Scotland. (From Publisher’s Weekly)

    Gurr, Nadine and Cole, Benjamin (2000). THE NEW FACE OF TERRORISM: THREATS FROM WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION. New York, NY: I.B. Tauris (distributed by St. Martins Press), ISBN: 1860644600
         Examines and assesses the new style of terrorism by small groups, cults and individuals with access to chemical, nuclear or biological weapons. The authors follow the reasons and methods for the emergence of massively destructive terrorism, evaluate its strategic and tactical uses as well as its problems (from a terrorist’s perspective), and offers information and opinions on the increasing problem of state-sponsored terrorism. Argues that while it is counterproductive to exaggerate the threat, governments need to be vigilant in squelching the flow of weapons of mass destruction in the face of possible doomsday disaster. Appendix lists known cases of biological, nuclear and chemical terrorism or threats thereof. (

    Hamm, Mark S. (2002). IN BAD COMPANY: AMERICA’S TERRORIST UNDERGROUND. Boston: Northeastern University Press, ISBN: 1555534929
         With the roots and trappings of terrorism at the forefront of national consciousness, Hamm’s study of domestic terrorism is especially timely. Hamm offers a detailed look at the Aryan Republican Army (ARA), a radical right cell that he suspects actively assisted Timothy McVeigh. Based upon information from shared acquaintances, a reconstruction of McVeigh’s movements in the months preceding the bombing and other circumstantial evidence, Hamm theorizes that the mysterious “John Doe 2” allegedly seen with McVeigh on the day of the bombing may have been an ARA member. These disaffected racists cast themselves, not unlike McVeigh, as patriots battling a corrupt federal government. Hamm interviewed the group’s principal leader, Pete Langan, at length in prison, where he is serving a life sentence, and the account is based largely on his perspective. Despite Hamm’s compelling perspective on right-wing subculture, his central theory that the ARA actively participated in the Oklahoma bombing is less than fully convincing, based as it is on only circumstantial evidence. (From Publisher’s Weekly)

    Harmon, Christopher C. (2000). TERRORISM TODAY. Portland, Ore.: Frank Cass, ISBN: 0714649988
         Educated in terrorism, revolutionary warfare, and counter-insurgency and with a background with the U.S. government and military, Harmon looks at the patterns, current trends, and future threats in terrorism worldwide, often drawing directly on the words and ideas of leaders themselves. He explores the ideology and psychology, the politics and policies, and the strategies and operations of many small groups and major insurgencies now active. (

    Hoge, James F. and Rose, Gideon (2001) HOW DID THIS HAPPEN?: TERRORISM AND THE NEW WAR. New York: Public Affairs, ISBN: 1586481304
         In the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on Sept. 11, one question has been on the mind of every American: “How did this happen?” This book seeks to answer this question in all its critical aspects: the motives and actions of the terrorists, the status of our military, the context of the Middle East, airport security, diplomatic pressures. The book provides readers with an authoritative but accessible account of the issues that led to the present crisis—not as a symposium of opinion, but as a series of narratives on different aspects of the situation, providing perspective, information, and sound interpretation. (From the publisher)

    Kassimeris, George (2001). EUROPE’S LAST RED TERRORISTS: THE REVOLUTIONARY ORGANIZATION 17 NOVEMBER. New York: New York University Press, ISBN: 0814747566
         This is the first book to deal with revolutionary terrorism in Greece. Greek journalist Kassimeris describes the group that began in 1975 and continues to be one of the most active and lethal urban guerrilla groups. He characterizes 17 November as fanatically nationalist and against the Greek establishment, the US, Turkey, NATO, and US bases in the eastern Mediterranean region. The name commemorates the 1973 massacre of demonstrators calling for the end of military rule in Greece. The authorities have not captured, killed, or wounded a single member. (

    Labévière, Richard (2000). DOLLARS FOR TERROR: THE UNITED STATES AND ISLAM. New York: Algora Publishing, ISBN: 1892941066
         In a provocative exposé, Swiss TV journalist Labévière argues that the real threat to the West from radical Islamic fundamentalism comes not from Iran or Iraq but rather from America’s solid allies—Saudi Arabia and neighboring oil monarchies. Based on his four-year investigation, Labévière charges that Saudi Arabia is the principal financial backer of extremist Islamist movements around the world. The linchpin in this operation, he states, is Saudi billionaire Osama bin Laden, trained by the CIA, who recruited, armed and trained in turn Arab volunteers to fight the Soviet army in the Afghanistan war, thereby strengthening the totalitarian Muslim Taliban regime. Bin Laden, who, according to the author, maintains close ties with the Saudi and Pakistani secret services, now bankrolls terrorist training camps in Afghanistan and abets Islamist extremist movements in Egypt, Yemen, Somalia, South Africa, Algeria and elsewhere. Veterans of the Afghan “holy war” have been implicated in the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center in New York City and the attempted murder of Egyptian president Mubarak in 1996. In Labévière’s riveting, often shocking, analysis, the U.S. is an accessory in the rise of Islam, because it manipulates and aids radical Muslim groups in its shortsighted pursuit of its economic interests, especially the energy resources of the Middle East and the oil- and mineral-rich former Soviet republics of Central Asia. This important book sounds a wake-up call to U.S. policy makers. (From Publisher’s Weekly)

    Lake, Anthony (2000). SIX NIGHTMARES: REAL THREATS IN A DANGEROUS WORLD AND HOW AMERICA CAN MEET THEM. New York: Little, Brown and Company, ISBN: 0316559768
         Lake, national security advisor to President Clinton from 1993 to 1996 and now Professor at Georgetown University, examines major security threats facing the United States at the start of the 21st century: chemical, biological, and nuclear warfare; electronic attacks, attacks from shadowy groups, and even mistakes made by our own government. Each scenario starts with a fictional introduction to the topic, then the problems are outlined and suggestion proposed what we can and must do to avoid disaster.

    Lavoy, Peter R. and Wirtz, James J., eds. (2000). PLANNING THE UNTHINKABLE: HOW NEW POWERS WILL USE NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL, AND CHEMICAL WEAPONS. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, ISBN: 0801437768
         The proliferation of chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons is now the single most serious security concern for governments around the world. The authors compare how military threats, strategic cultures, and organizations shape the way leaders intend to employ these armaments. They reveal the many frightening ways that emerging military powers and terrorist groups are planning the unthinkable by preparing to use chemical, biological, or nuclear weapons in future conflicts. Distinguished specialists consider several states and organizations that have this weaponry: Iraq, Iran, India, Pakistan, North Korea, and Israel, as well as the Aum Shinrikyo cult. The contributors expose plans for using unconventional weapons, highlighting the revolutionary effects these arsenals might have on international politics and regional disputes. (from the publisher)

    Linenthal, Edward T. (2001). THE UNFINISHED BOMBING: OKLAHOMA CITY IN AMERICAN MEMORY. New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN: 0195136721
         The Oklahoma City bombing happened in an instant, but its impact on U.S. society is still unfinished, according to Linenthal, a professor of religion and American culture and the author of two books dealing with “memorialization” (Sacred Ground: Americans and Their Battlefields and Preserving Memory: The Struggle To Create America’s Holocaust Museum). He examines the aftermath by describing three differing narratives: a progressive narrative that “invites people to focus on possibility, opportunity, healing, rebuilding”; a “redemptive narrative” that emphasizes a “crisis of meaning” in a religious context; and a “toxic narrative” that accentuates the victims and their shattered families. Talking to religious, political, and social service leaders in Oklahoma as well as to the surviving families, Linenthal movingly relates the tortuous process of body identification, family notification, grief counseling, and burial ceremonies and then offers a painstakingly detailed account of the memorialization process and its culmination in the choice of a memorial design. He concludes on a hopeful note, explaining how the “bonds of affection” forged between the survivors and a variety of individuals and ethnic, religious, and national groups throughout the world continue to overshadow the event’s toxic narrative. A revealing, empathetic analysis that fairly examines this tragic act of terror, the worst on U.S. soil until this September. (From Library Journal)

    Maniscalo, Paul M. and Christen, Hank T. (2002). UNDERSTANDING TERRORISM AND MANAGING THE CONSEQUENCES. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, ISBN: 0130212296
         Maniscalco, deputy chief paramedic for the New York City Fire Department, and Christian, director of emergency response operations for a private company discuss the full range of non-military responses to terrorist attacks. Their topics include the incident management system, biological terrorism, radiation, casualty decontamination, and crime scene operations. Despite its copyright date, the book appeared before the September 2001 attack on New York and Washington. (

    Murakami, Haruki (2001). UNDERGROUND: THE TOKYO GAS ATTACK AND THE JAPANESE PSYCHE. London: Panther, ISBN: 1860468438
         The deadly Tokyo subway poison gas attack, perpetrated by members of the Aum Shinrikyo cult on March 20, 1995, was the fulfillment of every urban straphanger’s nightmare. Through interviews with several dozen survivors and former members of Aum, novelist Murakami presents an utterly compelling work of reportage that lays bare the soul of contemporary Japan in all its contradictions. The sarin attack exposed Tokyo authorities’ total lack of preparation to cope with such fiendish urban terrorism. More interesting, however, is the variety of reactions among the survivors, a cross-section of Japanese citizens. Their individual voices remind us of the great diversity within what is too often viewed from afar as a homogeneous society. What binds most of them is their curious lack of anger at Aum. Chilling, too, is the realization that so many Aum members were intelligent, well-educated persons who tried to fill voids in their lives by following Shoko Asahara, a mad guru who promised salvation through total subordination to his will. (From Library Journal)

         Reexamines the evidence regarding Ramzi Yousef, the man held responsible for the World Trade Center bombing, and brings to light the split that developed between New York and Washington over the course of the investigation. Argues that Yousef was an agent of Iraqi intelligence, and contends that Saddam Hussein was a major figure in the bombing attempt. Mylroie is publisher of the online newsletter, “Iraq News.” (

    Onwudiwe, Ihekwoaba D. (2001). GLOBALIZATION OF TERRORISM. Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate, ISBN0754610950
         This study of terrorism proposes an understanding of the causes of terrorism within the context of world systems theory, which provides a model of world order that views nations as elements in a broader system tied together by economic and political relationships. Such a theoretical approach demonstrates that the controlling, core nations are comprised largely of the world’s leading capitalist countries and that at the bottom of the world hierarchy are many peripheral nations—needed to operate the economic machinery owned by individuals living in the core nations. The core nations’ economic interests propel them to protect the peripheral nations from interventions that would disrupt their exploitation of cheap labor and nature resources therein. Combining world systems theory with data on terrorist incidents, several specific nation case studies make some important trends apparent. The majority of terrorist incidents are aimed at core nations; however, they most often occur within peripheral nations. The United States is the most frequent target of terrorism and is also viewed as the most influential core nation. Terrorism, then, is a response to the structure of the world system — to the global inequity that exists in the world today. Any solution that could significantly reduce and control terrorism must include policies that will eliminate cross-national inequality and existing patterns of exploitation. (Criminal Justice Abstracts)

    Reader, Ian (2000). RELIGIOUS VIOLENCE IN CONTEMPORARY JAPAN: THE CASE OF AUM SHINRIKYO. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, ISBN: 0824823397
         A sociological study of Aum Shinrikyo examines the question of how a religious movement that was ostensibly focused on meditation, yoga, asceticism, and the pursuit of enlightenment eventually became enmeshed in terrorist violence. Research data include numerous publications by Aum members and its leader, Asahara Shoko; a wide array of primary and secondary materials; attendance at and analysis of several trials of Aum members; and interviews with scholars as well as with various Aum members. The teachings and personality of Asahara Shoko, Aum’s millennialist leanings, and its developing hostility toward society were not unique to Aum, nor was its decision to become involved in violence and terror. Thus, Aum Shinrikyo should be examined as an extreme example of a religious movement that came into conflict with the surrounding society primarily because of its own religious characteristics. Its actions should be analyzed in the context of religious violence. (Criminal Justice Abstracts)

         At 4:30 a.m. on the morning of Sept. 5, 1972, a band of Palestinian terrorists took 11 Israeli athletes and coaches hostage at the Summer Olympics in Munich. More than 900 million viewers followed the chilling, 20-hour event on television, as German authorities desperately negotiated with the terrorists. Finally, late in the evening, two helicopters bore the terrorists and their surviving hostages to Munich’s little-used Furstenfeldbruck airfield, where events went tragically awry. Within minutes all the Israeli athletes, five of the terrorists, and one German policeman were dead. Why did the rescue mission fail so miserably? And why were the reports compiled by the German authorities concealed from the public for more than two decades? Based on years of exhaustive research and the Academy Award-winning documentary of the same name, “One Day in September” is the definitive account of one of the most devastating and politically explosive tragedies of the late 20th century, one that set the tone for nearly 30 years of renewed conflict in the Middle East. (from the publisher)

    Siljander, Raymond P. and Fredrickson, Darin D. (2001, 2nd ed.) TERRORIST ATTACKS: A PROTECTIVE SERVICE GUIDE FOR EXECUTIVES, BODYGUARDS, AND POLICEMEN. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas, ISBN: 0398071020
         This new edition is an authoritative tool that extends years of knowledge and shared experience to emergency response personnel and those tasked with protection and prevention. This second edition contains a reorganization of chapters with updated and greatly expanded information. The most notable expansions are in the chapters on surveillance, countersurveillance, surveillance photography, physical security and the bodyguard function. In addition, the authors present unique chapters that offer the reader detailed information on bombings and bomb threats, kidnapping and hostage taking, defensive and offensive driving, communications, the sniper threat, and planning protection. (From the publisher)

    Tucker, Jonathan B. (2000) TOXIC TERROR: ASSESSING TERRORIST USE OF CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, ISBN: 0262201283
         Policy makers, scholars and the news media have been alarmed by the potential for chemical and biological weapons (CBW) terrorism, and the U.S. Congress has allocated billions of dollars for counterterrorism and “consequence management” programs. Driving these concerns are the global spread of scientific knowledge and technology relevant to CBW terrorism and the vulnerability of civilian populations to chemical and biological attacks. Notably lacking from the analysis, however, has been a careful assessment of the terrorists themselves. “Toxic Terror” provides in-depth case studies of 12 terrorist groups and individuals who, from 1946 to 1998, allegedly acquired or employed CBW agents. The cases were researched from primary sources, including court documents, interviews and declassified government files. (From the publisher)