Hawkins, Darnell F., Myers, Samuel L. Jr., and Stone, Randolph N. (Editors). (2003). CRIME CONTROL AND SOCIAL JUSTICE: THE DELICATE BALANCE. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, ISBN 0313307903.
Collection of original articles from leading criminologists and others exploring criminal justice policy and equity in the United States. Some of the topics considered include racial profiling, mandatory sentencing, and social affects of incarceration, unemployment, anti-gang and anti-drug policies. The theme throughout is the challenge of achieving crime control without infringing on civil rights and more broadly, social justice. For example, one discussion centers on the social costs to a neighborhood of the incarceration of relatively high number of its residents. Racial discrimination within the criminal justice system is the focus of many of the articles.
Milovanovic, Dragan. (2002). CRITICAL CRIMINOLOGY AT THE EDGE. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, ISBN 0275968286.
Post-modern analysis of sociological issues continues. Here, the author applies mathematical, psychoanalytic and literary criticism tools to criminal justice; specifically, chaos theory, catastrophe theory, edgework and psychoanalytic semiotics.
Renzetti, Claire, Curran, Daniel and Carr, Patrick (Editors). (2003). THEORIES OF CRIME: A READER. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, ISBN 0205361013.
This companion work contains reprints of articles referred to in the 2nd edition of the “Theories of Crime” text, published in 1991 by the same authors and publisher. Each article is accompanied by a brief overview and background. This is an interesting compilation of writings by prominent criminal justice theorists, and a terrific introduction to theoretical criminology. Issues addressed include routine activities, social disorganization, substance abuse, social learning, self-control, intelligence, mental illness, biology, left realism, social inequality and labeling. Eighteen different papers are presented, with each one illustrating a different approach to the question of what causes crime.
Schwartz, Martin D. & Hatty, Suzanne E. (Editors). (2003). CONTROVERSIES IN CRITICAL CRIMINOLOGY. Cincinnati: Anderson, ISBN 1583605215.
A collection of original essays designed to introduce the reader to concepts of critical criminology, written by prominent advocates for each theory. Proponents of postmodern and restorative justice, left realism, feminist, Marxist, constitutive, cultural and peacemaking criminology explain each of these approaches to thinking about crime. Having explained the theoretical aspects, the authors of the second part of the book use the concepts to examine specific applications; crimes by the state, male violence, hate crimes, body piercing and tattooing. A thought-provoking, instructive short introduction to a small but remarkably influential body of criminological theory.
Stolz, Barbara Ann. (2002). CRIMINAL JUSTICE POLICY MAKING: FEDERAL ROLES AND PROCESSES. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, ISBN 0275973247 (paper).
A combination of a guide to how policy is made and an anthology of readings and primary documents illustrating the politics of criminal justice policy, including some classic papers. About half of the book is original, while the rest consists of reprinted works, some in their entirety and others extracted. The author wrote the book for students taking a graduate-level class, and it serves as a good overview and introduction to policy making. Policy-making bodies considered include Congress, the President, the Supreme Court, federal agencies, and “street level bureaucracy.”
Sung, Hung-En (2002). THE FRAGMENTATION OF POLICING IN AMERICAN CITIES: TOWARD AN ECOLOGICAL THEORY OF POLICE-CITIZEN RELATIONS. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, ISBN 0275973212.
Urban residential neighborhoods tend to be stratified by a number of socioeconomic characteristics including income and race. Levels and perceptions of crime have been shown to be related to spatial characteristics such as neighborhood disorganization. Relatively little work has looked at how neighborhood characteristics affect policing. The author analyzes data from a 1977 survey to test his hypotheses regarding the effects of place on policing and police-citizen interactions. He argues that both police authoritativeness and citizen support of policing are correlated with two neighborhood characteristics: social power status and moral standing.
Walsh, Anthony. (2002). BIOSOCIAL CRIMINOLOGY: INTRODUCTION AND INTEGRATION. Cincinnati: Anderson Publishing Co., ISBN 1583605320.
A review of how biology can inform criminological thought. The author first explains behavioral genetics, evolutionary psychology and neurology in the context of crime and criminal behavior, and then, in subsequent chapters, examines how these disciplines can be applied to traditional criminological theories, including strain theories, control theories, social learning, human ecology and critical criminological theories. The author is a criminologist and advocate for applying biology to his field.
Wilcox, Pamela, Land, Kenneth C. & Hunt, Scott A. (2002). CRIMINAL CIRCUMSTANCE: A DYNAMIC MULTI-CONTEXTUAL CRIMINAL OPPORTUNITY THEORY. Revised edition. New York: Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 0202307212 (paper).
Opportunity theory states that three factors are necessary for crimes to take place — motivated offenders, suitable targets and the absence of capable guardians. The authors explore the history and development of the concepts before proposing further refinements in this very academic work.