Law Enforcement News

Vol. XXX, No. 620 A publication of John Jay College of Criminal Justice/CUNY Summer 2004

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In this issue:

Administration, Management & Supervision.

Community & Problem-Oriented Policing.

Corporate & White-Collar Crime.

Crime (General).

Criminology.

Cyber-crime.

Drugs.

Forensic Science & Investigation.

Gangs, Juvenile Crime & Delinquency.

History.

Integrity/Oversight.

Miscellaneous.

Organized Crime.

Police Use of Force.

Police Culture.

Profiling.

Sex Crimes.

Strategies & Tactics.

Technology, Weapons & Equipment.

Terrorism.

Violence.

Directory of Publishers Cited.

 
Integrity/Oversight

     Delattre, Edwin J. (2002). CHARACTER AND COPS: ETHICS IN POLICING. 4th edition. Washington, D.C.: AEI Press, ISBN: 0844741531 (paper).

     The fourth edition of a highly-praised book, in which the philosopher author stresses the importance of individual character. This work can be read as a practical guide to living ethically, as an individual and as an officer. Organizational issues addressed include training and leadership, but the emphasis is on individual action. There are many allusions to and analyses of real-life events, both historical and contemporary, and quotations from notable figures. This is an unusual book on police ethics, in that it looks at the positive aspects, rather than focusing on the failures. Which is not to say that the author ignores prejudice, corruption and excessive use of force — these topics and more are discussed. A good secular book on being a good officer and managing a good department.


     Klockars, Carl, Ivkovic, Sanja K. & Haberfeld, Maria (Editors). (2003). THE COUNTOURS OF POLICE INTEGRITY. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, ISBN: 0761925856.

     Police misconduct is a topic of great concern worldwide. However, the causes of police corruption are remarkably different. Understanding the unique political, historical, legal and economic institutions of a country is essential in identifying the potential for police misconduct. This innovative text illustrates how officers in different cultures regard various types of corruption, how severely they think transgressions should be punished, and how willing they are to come forward to report infractions. (amazon.com)


     Lersch, Kim Michelle. (Editor). (2002). POLICING AND MISCONDUCT. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, ISBN: 0130270164 (paper).

     Misconduct includes a variety of unethical behavior, including but not limited to corruption, excessive force, harassment, abuse and misuse of authority. This is a well-integrated anthology, written as part of a series of training manuals, but formatted in the manner of a college-level textbook. The first of three parts provides a history and background, the next surveys varieties of misconduct and the third part discusses prevention and control. Relatively unusual topics include drug testing, community policing, police women, and police sexual violence, all weighed in the context of misconduct.


     Walker, Samuel. (2001). POLICE ACCOUNTABILITY: THE ROLE OF CITIZEN OVERSIGHT. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Thompson, ISBN: 0534581587.

     The author’s view is that police misconduct reflects the failure of the department as an organization, and only organizational change can solve the problem. Effective citizen oversight has the potential to reduce the likelihood of misconduct occurring. The author defines and describes civilian oversight, discusses its role and assesses the effectiveness of different types of oversight, identifying what works and what doesn’t. He includes a chapter on the development of citizen oversight of police behavior during the 20th century. The author also addresses the arguments against citizen oversight. The appendix contains a model citizen complaint procedure. Case studies, classification systems, forms and other administrative items from departments across the country are included as illustrations. This is not a manual on how to set up citizen review procedures, but a thoughtful discussion and exploration of the issues involved.


Miscellaneous

     Abramsky, Sasha & Fellner, Jamie. (2003). ILL-EQUIPPED: U.S. PRISONS AND OFFENDERS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS. New York: Human Rights Watch, ISBN: 1564322904.

     This report attracted considerable media attention when it was released. It describes the conditions in which mentally ill inmates live. Police officers are familiar with the mentally ill in the community — this work describes what happens to mentally ill offenders serving out their sentences, and upon release. The report provides a sobering reminder of the inadequacies of mental health care today in the U.S.


     Ainsworth, Peter B. (2002). PSYCHOLOGY AND POLICING. Cullompton, England; Portland, Ore.: Willan, ISBN: 1903240441 (paper.).

     Police work primarily involves interacting with people, but officers are rarely given sufficient formal training in psychology. The aim of the author is to introduce officers to some areas of psychological knowledge that they can profitably use on the job. One chapter discusses recruitment, an area where psychology is regularly used. Other topics cover more everyday situations, including people perception and interpersonal skills, memory, aggression, interviewing suspects and witnesses, and stress. Particularly interesting are the chapters in which the author identifies common misconceptions in suspect interviewing and deception perception, and reviews what is actually known. This is not a how-to manual, but an intelligent presentation of some facets of psychology that police officers should be aware of.


     Bannon, Mark E. (2003). A QUICK REFERENCE GUIDE TO CONTEMPORARY CRIMINAL PROCEDURE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS: ONE HUNDRED NOTABLE UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT DECISIONS, AND THEIR EFFECT ON MODERN POLICING IN AMERICA. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, ISBN: 0398074267 (paper).

     Officers use their knowledge of criminal procedure every day. This guide identifies, describes and explains the Supreme Court decisions that interpret the statutory law to define the parameters of police authority and actions. The selected cases have been arranged under 14 areas of law. The facts of each case are given, and the reasoning behind each decision. Multiple-choice questions and answers with explanations are provided at the end of each chapter.


     Leishman, Frank. (2003). POLICING AND THE MEDIA: FACTS, FICTIONS AND FACTIONS. Cullompton, England: Willan, ISBN: 190324028X (paper.).

     The three parts of this British work — facts, fictions and factions — explore the interactions of police and the media. “Facts” examines how police and crime are portrayed by the media and how officers can and do influence journalists’ reports. “Fictions” concentrates on how cops are portrayed in British fictional television shows, while “Factions” examines reality cop shows.


     Willis, Clint. (Editor). (2002). NYPD: STORIES OF SURVIVAL FROM THE WORLD’S TOUGHEST BEAT. Berkeley, Calif.: Thunder Mouth Press: Distributed by Publishers Group West, ISBN: 1560254122.

     A collection of excerpts from previously published books, all of which feature New York City police officers. The range is broad – from the 19th through the 20th centuries. Includes pieces from Byrne’s “Rogues Gallery” from 1886 and Asbury’s “Gangs of New York” from 1928. All are melodramatic accounts of police adventures in the quintessential seedy, drug-immersed corrupt city beloved of pulp fiction writers. Great fun, but probably not representative of today’s NYPD.


Organized Crime

     Cowan, Rick & and Century, Douglas. (2002). TAKEDOWN: THE FALL OF THE LAST MAFIA EMPIRE. NY: Putnam’s, ISBN: 0399148752.

     A first-person account by an undercover cop (Rick Cowan) of the seven-year investigation and destruction of the organized crime garbage removal empire in New York City. The book is a “factionalized” account — while based on fact, conversations and other non-recorded information have been recreated by the authors, so the book reads like a good fast-paced thriller.


     MacKenzie, Edward & Karas, Phyllis with Muscato, Ross A. (2003). STREET SOLDIER: MY LIFE AS AN ENFORCER FOR WHITEY BULGER AND THE BOSTON IRISH MOB. South Royalton, Vt.: Steerforth Press, ISBN: 1586420631.

     Whitey Bulger, the brother of a prominent Massachusetts politician, was an organized crime leader in South Boston, until his gang was broken up in 1990. This is an autobiographical account of one of his employees, a boxer, drug dealer and ex-marine named Edward MacKenzie. It is a frank account of a criminal career that concluded with eight months as an informer for the FBI. The author later graduated from the University of Massachusetts.


Police Use of Force

     Johnson, Marilynn S. (2003). STREET JUSTICE: A HISTORY OF POLICE VIOLENCE IN NEW YORK CITY. Boston: Beacon Press, ISBN: 0807050229.

     Founded in 1845, the New York Police Department is one of the oldest and largest police departments in the country. This book deals with some of the less-salubrious aspects of its history — brutality exercised by its officers. The author points out that the NYPD has not been an especially abusive police department, and has in fact been in the forefront of anti-brutality movements. The bulk of the book covers the 19th and early 20th centuries, with only the last few pages discussing the 1990s. The role of racism as a factor in police brutality is addressed. This is a fascinating work documenting both violence and reform in the NYPD, from a social and political perspective. An interesting and readable work from a historian at Boston College.


     Klinger, David. (2004). INTO THE KILL ZONE: A COP’S EYE VIEW OF DEADLY FORCE. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, ISBN: 0787973750.

     “Based on interviews that Klinger conducted with scores of officers from around the nation who have shot people in the course of their duties, ‘Into the Kill Zone’ tells readers about how police officers are trained to use their firearms, what happens when cops find themselves face-to-face with dangerous criminals, the excruciating decisions they have to make to shoot or to hold their fire, and how they deal with the consequences of their choices. From academy training to post-shooting reactions, ‘Into the Kill Zone’ tells the compelling story of the role that deadly force plays in the lives of America’s cops.” Klinger served as a cop for three and a half years, during which time he shot and killed a civilian while on duty. (Review from the publisher.)


     Lo, Man Kam. (translated by John Kang, Bradley Temple & Nicholas Veitch ). (2001). POLICE KUNG FU: THE PERSONAL COMBAT HANDBOOK OF THE TAIWAN NATIONAL POLICE. Boston: Tuttle, ISBN: 0804832714 (paper).

     This is a translation of a manual distributed to officers in Taiwan’s police academy. Taiwanese police are expected to be proficient in unarmed combat and martial arts. The author is a master martial arts expert, and has had considerable experience in instructing law enforcement personnel. Chapters are quite specific, and address, respectively, techniques against a knife, gun and bat and with a police club, unarmed combat, and training for hand-to-hand combat. The moves are illustrated with black and white photographs.


     Rahtz, Howard. (Editor). (2003). UNDERSTANDING POLICE USE OF FORCE. Monsey, N.Y.: Criminal Justice Press, ISBN: 1881798429.

     “This even-handed and comprehensive discussion is intended to facilitate informed discussion among citizens, police and students on the use of force in law enforcement. Topics include: definitions; the legal framework; options for the use of force; steps to minimize the use of force; what to do when the worst happens; the racial divide; and towards better policy and understanding.” (Text from the publisher.)