Law Enforcement News

Vol. XXX, No. 620 A publication of John Jay College of Criminal Justice/CUNY Summer 2004

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In this issue:

Administration, Management & Supervision.

Community & Problem-Oriented Policing.

Corporate & White-Collar Crime.

Crime (General).

Criminology.

Cyber-crime.

Drugs.

Forensic Science & Investigation.

Gangs, Juvenile Crime & Delinquency.

History.

Integrity/Oversight.

Miscellaneous.

Organized Crime.

Police Use of Force.

Police Culture.

Profiling.

Sex Crimes.

Strategies & Tactics.

Technology, Weapons & Equipment.

Terrorism.

Violence.

Directory of Publishers Cited.

 
Police Culture

     Monta, Howard A. (2002). SURVIVE LOW MORALE, STRESS AND BURNOUT IN LAW ENFORCEMENT: (IDENTIFY & MANAGE THE EIGHT ELEMENTS OF JOB BURNOUT). Longwood, Fla.: Gould Publications, Inc., ISBN: 087526607X.

     An 82-page manual by a retired sergeant on how to cope with some of the psychological stresses police work entails. Some of the problems addressed include coping with grief, fear, change, failure, attacks on the profession, complaints and injustice. Not a celebration of the positive aspects of police life, but full of tips aimed at ensuring the survival of an officer’s enthusiasm and raising morale in the face of day-to-day negativity.


     Thompson, R. Alan. (2003). CAREER EXPERIENCES OF AFRICAN AMERICAN POLICE EXECUTIVES: BLACK IN BLUE REVISITED. New York: LFB Scholarly Pub. LLC, ISBN: 1931202575.

     The author surveyed CEO-level police managers who were members of the National Organization of Black Law Enforcement Executives. Survey questions were designed to elicit information on a number of issues, including but not limited to perceptions of relations with colleagues and the public, equality, tolerance, differential treatment, experiences early in their careers and more. In the first half of the book the author reviews the literature and presents the background to the research, including a history of African Americans as police officers, interactions of black officers with white officers, and relations with and reaction of the civilian black and white communities.


     Toch, Hans. (2002). STRESS IN POLICING. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, ISBN: 1557988293.

     The author, a social psychologist, carried out a stress study in two police departments in New York state. Officers were interviewed, singly and in focus groups, and asked to complete a questionnaire. The resulting quantitative and qualitative data are presented here. Officers’ accounts of stressful incidents and situations, and coping tactics, are reproduced as an integral part of the text. Sources of stress that were considered include both work and personal/family issues. The questionnaire used, and the coded responses, are provided in the appendices. One U.K.-based reviewer summed up the work as being useful and valuable to a North American audience, but a couple of decades behind the state of knowledge of stress in policing in the United Kingdom.


Profiling

     Heumann, Milton & Cassak, Lance. (2003). GOOD COP, BAD COP: RACIAL PROFILING AND COMPETING VIEWS OF JUSTICE. New York: P. Lang, ISBN: 0820458295 (paper).

     A timely essay on a controversial topic. The authors, a political scientist and a legal scholar, trace the evolution of racial profiling over the last three decades. The six chapters address the historical origins of profiling; airport drug courier profiling; traffic stops; the debate over profiling; Supreme Court rulings, and the future of profiling. The authors note that a broad consensus condemning racial profiling seemed to be in place before Sept. 11, 2001, but subsequently, the concept of profiling by ethnicity seems to be receiving some support. One quotation compares “driving while black” to “flying while Middle-Eastern.” A good addition to the literature on civil rights in general, and on rights in a post-Sept. 11 context.


     MacDonald, Heather. (2003). ARE COPS RACIST? Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, ISBN: 156663489X.

     Journalist Heather MacDonald adds her voice to the racial profiling debate. MacDonald takes pride in raising questions and finding answers that are not necessarily in line with popular contemporary thought. She argues that the move away from racial profiling is hurting poor minority urban residents. She examines the Amadou Diallo case, riots in Cincinnati following police shooting of a young black man, the New York Police Department and its training academy. She reports briefly on interviews she conducted with black police officers from eight different departments. The book concludes with a discussion on profiling and terrorism. Well worth reading and guaranteed to provoke argument and thought.


     O’Reilly , James T. (2002). POLICE TRAFFIC STOPS AND RACIAL PROFILING: RESOLVING MANAGEMENT, LABOR, AND CIVIL RIGHTS CONFLICTS. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, ISBN: 0398072965.

     Written by a police labor arbitrator, the text defends profiling as a legitimate tool, but condemns race-based profiling. The options for police managers faced with officers using racial profiling are presented. Firing or suspending officers is likely to give rise to a union grievance, which the department is unlikely to win. In the first section of the book, the author examines the history and issues surrounding racial profiling, with the emphasis on traffic stops. A case study presents the circumstances of the New Jersey State Police. Legal issues are explored, including consent decrees and their consequences, and the effects of litigation. This work explores the management and personnel complications of implementing an important element of police reform.


Sex Crimes

     Geberth, Vernon J. (2003). SEX-RELATED HOMICIDE AND DEATH INVESTIGATIONS: PRACTICAL AND CLINICAL PERSPECTIVES. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press, ISBN: 0849312817.

     This is a graphic book on a very disturbing topic, written by a retired New York City homicide investigator and former Bronx homicide task force commander. The author advises on appropriate investigative techniques, including a chapter on crime scene investigation and collecting and preserving physical evidence. Case studies are included, some of them quite extensive.


     Holmes, Ronald M. (2002). SEX CRIMES: PATTERNS AND BEHAVIOR. 2nd edition. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, ISBN: 0761924175 (paper).

     The authors have written a good up-to-date overview of current research and knowledge on an often sensationalized topic. Normal and deviant sex behaviors are discussed first, before considering criminal behaviors. The text is interspersed with first-person accounts by sex offenders, victims and others, definitions and categorizations of behaviors and individuals. Designed for use as a textbook, and apparently popular with students, it should also be good reading for anyone wishing to become familiar with current thought in this area.


     Schlesinger, Louis B. (2004). SEXUAL MURDER: CATATHYMIC AND COMPULSIVE HOMICIDES. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press, ISBN: 0849311306.

     A scholarly account of the psychology of sexually motivated murderers. The author distinguishes between homicides that are sexually motivated and those that are not, believing that an understanding of the latter is essential to that of the former. One chapter is devoted to psychological evaluations, and another to homicide prediction. The historical development of theories on sexual homicide is given. The author classifies and discusses sexual homicides under four categories: acute and chronic catathymic homicides, and planned and unplanned compulsive homicides. A catathymic homicide is described as one where the murderer uses the violent act to relieve feelings caused by underlying emotional conflicts. The author is a forensic psychologist at John Jay College.