Law Enforcement News

Vol. XXX, No. 620 A publication of John Jay College of Criminal Justice/CUNY Summer 2004

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In this issue:

Administration, Management & Supervision.

Community & Problem-Oriented Policing.

Corporate & White-Collar Crime.

Crime (General).




Forensic Science & Investigation.

Gangs, Juvenile Crime & Delinquency.




Organized Crime.

Police Use of Force.

Police Culture.


Sex Crimes.

Strategies & Tactics.

Technology, Weapons & Equipment.



Directory of Publishers Cited.

Strategies & Tactics

     Bell, Jeannine. (2002). POLICING HATRED: LAW ENFORCEMENT, CIVIL RIGHTS, AND HATE CRIME. New York: New York University Press, ISBN: 0814798977.

     Police officers have the discretion to decide how criminal incidents are initially classified: as ordinary crimes, or as bias-motivated crimes. Following the passage of Hate Crimes Statistics Act, the author spent over five months observing an anti-bias task force in the police department of a large unnamed U.S. city. She records how hate crimes were investigated by the unit, how officers decided whether or not to charge offenders, and the resulting legal activity. She explores the attitudes of civilians and officers towards hate crimes, and discusses the institutional and other difficulties faced by the officers of the bias unit in their investigations. This ethnographic study formed the basis of the author’s Ph.D. research.


     The third in a series of reference guides to the Constitution, which aim to appeal to a wide audience, including “intelligent non-lawyers.” It consists of a short history and rather longer analysis of search and seizure law, and concludes with a bibliographical essay identifying further resources for those interested in going further. It is a short, relatively accessible introduction to an important area of law, written by legal authorities yet in a style that avoids legal jargon.


     Most weapons discharges by officers and felonious assaults on officers occur at night, but few officers are adequately trained in working in low-light conditions, according to the author. This manual describes equipment and techniques appropriate for police work in low-light conditions. Weapons sighting systems, signaling devices, and illumination products suitable for low-light conditions are identified. Black and white photographs are used for illustration. There is a list of suppliers/manufacturers and their addresses at the back.

     McCluskey, John D. (2003). POLICE REQUESTS FOR COMPLIANCE: COERCIVE AND PROCEDURALLY JUST TACTICS. New York: LFB Scholarly Pub., ISBN: 1931202613.  

     Situations in which a citizen refused to comply with an officer’s request can quickly escalate to the benefit of no one. Knowing the circumstances that affect non-compliance can help officers identify approaches more likely to result in a positive outcome. This academic study examines how civilians actually respond to police requests in two situations — when asked to identify themselves, and when asked to exert some kind of self-control, e.g., asked to stop behaving in a certain way, or to leave the scene. The factors influencing the response of the citizen are identified and discussed.

     Siljander, Raymond P. & Fredrickson, Darin D. (2002). FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICAL SURVEILLANCE: A GUIDE FOR UNIFORMED AND PLAINCLOTHES PERSONNEL. 2nd edition. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas Publisher, ISBN: 0398073333 (paper).

     A practical and detailed guide to successfully observing people, vehicles and places without being detected. Detailed tips on walking quietly, interpreting activity patterns around a residence, following vehicles and erecting hides are just some of the aspects addressed. Useful technological tools are identified and described, including photographic and vision enhancement equipment. The authors cover surveillance on foot as well as in vehicles. Much of what is in here may be familiar to officers experienced in surveillance techniques, but should be interesting to those new to the field, or to fiction writers.

Technology, Weapons & Equipment

     Anderson, Klint. (2003). POLICE SNIPER SCIENCE MANUAL. Doylestown, Pa.: National Tactical Officers Association.

     “This 412-page book was created as the basis of a structured and progressive police sniper training program or as a complete self-study resource for the beginning or advanced sniper…. The manual covers customary sniper information: shooting fundamentals, rifle and ballistics data, shooting environments and the math and science behind the art of sniping, among dozens of other essential sniping subjects. The history of SWAT, the legal issues of tactical operations and deadly force, and civil liability are also covered in depth. Each chapter is complete with pertinent illustrations and knowledge and skill testing exercises.” (Text from the publisher. Available in book or CD format. Publisher sells to NTOA members only.)

     Committee to Review the Scientific Evidence on the Polygraph (National Research Council (U.S.)). (2003). THE POLYGRAPH AND LIE DETECTION. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, ISBN: 0309084369.

     This is an important peer-reviewed report from the National Research Council. A select committee of scientists, including psychologists and statisticians, examined the evidence for the reliability and validity of the polygraph. Their mandate was to focus on personnel security screening, but they also considered event-specific lie detection, as the bulk of scientific work on polygraphy has been written in this area. Both quantitative and qualitative research was examined, and alternatives to the polygraph discussed. Chapter Eight summarizes the conclusions of the committee, and there is a 10-page executive summary at the front of the book. The appendices include a description of polygraph screening in federal agencies, and an analysis of the case of scientist Wen Ho Lee. (The report is available on the publisher’s Website at

     Segrave, Kerry. (2004). LIE DETECTORS: A SOCIAL HISTORY. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, ISBN: 0786416181.

     A device that can reliably detect and distinguish between truth and lies has been the Holy Grail of law enforcement from time immemorial: unfortunately, there are still people who believe such an instrument actually exists. This book examines the history of the development, use and legal status of the polygraph or lie detector, and should be compulsory reading for anyone who has contact with the devices themselves or information acquired through their use. As the author points out, while the polygraph was, and is, unreliable, it provided a “resolution to a situation” and could be used to “intimidate and coerce and control”. The long history of the use of this dubious device, despite any supporting evidence of its utility, is a reminder of how keen we are to adopt quick and easy “solutions,” and should caution us against uncritical acceptance of unproven technologies.

     Spaulding, Dave. (2001). HANDGUN COMBATIVES. Flushing, N.Y.: Looseleaf Law Publications, ISBN: 1889031550.

     A short guide to using handguns. The author, a lieutenant in the Montgomery County, Ohio, Sheriff’s Office, emphasizes tactics and techniques rather than technology. The book is not specifically addressed at law enforcement officers.


     Cole, David & Dempsey, James X. (2002). TERRORISM AND THE CONSTITUTION: SACRIFICING CIVIL LIBERTIES IN THE NAME OF NATIONAL SECURITY. 2nd edition. New York: New Press, ISBN: 1565847822 (paper).

     The first edition of this work was published in 1999, but the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks and the legal consequences demanded an update. Both editions have been widely reviewed and praised. A reviewer of the 1999 edition noted as controversial the authors’ assertion that acts of terrorism by international terrorists within the U.S. were rare — true, but rare acts can be quite consequential, as we have experienced. The 1996 Anti-Terrorism Act was criticized in the 1999 edition, and the authors have found more cause for concern with the passage of the Patriot Act. The authors look critically at the history of counterterrorism activity within the United States, and particularly at the FBI, and the civil liberties abuses that have been committed under the guise of fighting terrorism. Both authors are lawyers — Cole is a law professor at Georgetown University and commentator on National Public Radio, while Dempsey is a former assistant counsel to the House Judiciary subcommittee on civil and constitutional rights.

     Cutter, Susan L., Richardson, Douglas D. & Wilbanks, Thomas J. (2003). THE GEOGRAPHICAL DIMENSIONS OF TERRORISM. New York: Routledge, ISBN 0415946425. (paper).

     Geographical information systems have already been adopted as crimefighting tools. These papers were written and collected as a response by geographers to the Sept. 11 attacks. They collectively identify how geography as a discipline, and its tools, can be used in counterterrorism, and outline a research agenda for the future. This volume should be of particular interest to people interested in improving emergency response systems.

     Etzioni, Amitai & Marsh, Jason H. (Editors). (2003). RIGHTS VS. PUBLIC SAFETY AFTER 9/11: AMERICA IN THE AGE OF TERRORISM. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN: 0742527557 (paper).

     Highly recommended by the American Library Association for the general reader and college students. This collection of documents and essays has been gathered by a leading advocate for communitarianism — a philosophy advocating social responsibility, developed in answer to the perceived failures of liberalism. Immigration, the just-war concept, public health and freedom of the press are a few of the concepts addressed. This work serves as useful addition to the literature on civil liberties and counterterrorism.


     Governments confronted with terrorist activity may respond by implementing emergency powers. These powers generally consist of legislation suspending some civil liberties for a period of time. Northern Ireland, Peru, Canada and Uruguay all imposed emergency powers in response to indigenous terrorist activity. The author presents case studies on these four states, examining the consequences for each of imposing emergency powers on their citizens, and considers whether they were effective, and whether they were abused. In the final chapter, he briefly discusses the applicability and possible outcomes of the use of emergency powers in the U.S.

     Ghosh, Tushar K. et al (Editors). (2002). SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF TERRORISM AND COUNTERTERRORISM. New York: Marcel Dekker, ISBN: 0824708709.

     An excellent collection of papers for those interested in reading about the technical aspects of terrorism. The bulk of the book is devoted to biological, chemical and nuclear weapons, but other issues addressed include group psychology of terrorism, cyber-terrorism, personal protective equipment, and emergency response, including the National Response Plan. A number of chapters address sensors and detectors of weapons of mass destruction. A lot of detailed information is provided, and there are bibliographies for anyone interested in exploring the topics further. While readers with a science or technology background will probably get the most out of it, it is supposed to be aimed at senior level undergraduates and graduates in public policy, among other subjects. A good addition to any emergency response and police department library.

     Graysmith, Robert. (2003). AMERITHRAX: THE HUNT FOR THE ANTHRAX KILLER. N.Y.: Berkley Books, ISBN: 0425191907.

     Sensational and, sadly, unavoidably inconclusive account of the investigation into the mailing of anthrax spores during the fall of 2001.

     Jackson, Brian A. et al (Editors). (2002). PROTECTING EMERGENCY RESPONDERS: LESSONS LEARNED FROM TERRORIST ATTACKS. Santa Monica, Calif.: Rand, ISBN: 083303149X.

     A synthesis of the presentations and discussions that took place at a New York City conference on reacting to terrorist attacks. Actual responses to the Oklahoma City bombing, World Trade Center and the anthrax-by-mail attacks are the prime considerations. Personal protective equipment is the main topic, but there is some coverage of other matters, including site management.

     Levy, Barry S. & Sidel, Victor W. (Editors). (2003). TERRORISM AND PUBLIC HEALTH: A BALANCED APPROACH TO STRENGTHENING SYSTEMS AND PROTECTING PEOPLE. New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN: 0195158342.

     This book presents a portrait of the actual responses and needs of a vital, but often overlooked, component of U.S. security — the public health system. The response of the public health system and personnel to terrorist attacks may in part dictate the resulting morbidity and mortality. The first part of the collection of articles in this work critically addresses these responses in the awake of the Sept. 11 attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon and the anthrax attacks. Traditional, biological, chemical and nuclear weapons are discussed in the second part. The third part addresses improvements necessary to the public health system, including disease surveillance, emergency preparedness, communication, research needs for tackling the threat of bio-weapons, protecting the food and water supply, and ambient air. Civil liberties, international law and the causes of terrorism are also briefly considered.

     Nacos, Brigitte L. (2002). MASS-MEDIATED TERRORISM: THE CENTRAL ROLE OF THE MEDIA IN TERRORISM AND COUNTERTERRORISM. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN: 0742510832.

     An essay exploring media coverage of terrorism and counterterrorism. The author emphasizes the key role played by the media in providing publicity to terrorists. One chapter covers the use of the internet for publicity and communication. Although the work was started before the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, there is considerable coverage of media coverage of that event and its aftermath. The chapter on dealing with the mass media may be of practical interest to police departments.

     Perlmutter, Dawn. (2003). INVESTIGATING RELIGIOUS TERRORISM AND RITUALISTIC CRIMES. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press, ISBN 0849310342.

     Knowing the motive behind a crime is key to solving it. Dr. Perlmutter explains the theology of new religious movements and unfamiliar religions, and identifies crimes committed in the name of religion by a few believers. Trespassing, vandalism and church desecration are typical crimes motivated by ritualistic beliefs, while hate crimes, tax evasion and mass murder are associated with religious terrorism. A case study of the Japanese cult Aum Shinrikyo is presented to illustrate terrorism by millennial religious groups. The chapter surveying domestic groups looks at Christian fundamentalists including the Phineas Priesthood and Christian Identity. Satanism and vampirism each have their own chapters. Also considered are Santeria, voodoo and other syncretized religions. A chapter on international terrorist groups examines Islamic fundamentalism. The last three chapters cover crime scenes, intelligence strategies and ritual homicide.


     Many police departments have employed citizens to analyze crime data. Now agencies are looking for analytic support for counterterrorism-related information. This work was written by an experienced law enforcement trainer as an aid to training analysts. The appendices include descriptions of foreign terrorist groups, a list of domestic “patriot” extremist groups, and graphic symbols used by hate groups. Includes a chapter on homeland security.

     Ross, Jeffrey Ian. (2003). THE DYNAMICS OF POLITICAL CRIME. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, ISBN: 0803970455 (paper).

     Covers crimes both by the state and against the state, with the latter including terrorism and nonviolent oppositional crime. Crimes by the state include corruption, illegal domestic surveillance, human rights violations, violence by the state (including by police) and state-corporate crime. Only advanced industrialized democracies are considered, with emphasis on the U.S., Great Britain and Canada. Designed for use as an undergraduate textbook, with review questions at the end of each chapter. An easy to read critical introduction to the theoretical aspects of political crime.

     Silke, Andrew (Editor). (2003). TERRORISTS, VICTIMS, AND SOCIETY: PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES ON TERRORISM AND ITS CONSEQUENCES. Chichester, West Sussex, England; Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley, ISBN: 0471494623.

     Why do people become terrorists and perform terrorist acts? Is there a specific terrorist personality? This series of academic papers, planned before the Sept. 11 attacks, examines the psychology of terrorists as well as their victims. The former includes the psychology of hostage-taking, cyber-terrorism, suicidal terrorism, and leaving terrorist organizations, while the latter explores the psychological impact of terrorist acts on individuals, children and societies, and media representations of terrorism. A final three articles look at counterterrorism strategies, including a chapter on imprisonment in Northern Ireland.

     Singer, Margaret Thaler. (2003). CULTS IN OUR MIDST. Revised edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, ISBN: 0787967416.

     An overview of how cults persuade vulnerable people to join them, and how they are indoctrinated. The book provides information on how outsiders can help members leave and take up independent lives outside the cult. The author sees cult members as victims forced into a state of dependency from which recovery is possible. New material in this second edition includes a discussion of cults and terrorism.

     Stern, Jessica. (2003). TERROR IN THE NAME OF GOD: WHY RELIGIOUS MILITANTS KILL. New York: Ecco, ISBN: 006050532X.

     Stern interviewed dozens of members of a variety of terrorist organizations in the U.S, Asia and the Middle East over a five-year period in an attempt to find out why people kill themselves and others in the name of a cause. Stern, a Harvard University professor, identifies alienation, humiliation, demographics, history and territoriality as the prime motivators. This work has been widely reviewed and generally highly praised as one of the best in a crowded field.


     Photographs of Ground Zero on and after Sept. 11, 2001, taken by New York police, from the ground and in the air.