Lloyd Sealy Library                                                                                                                    John Jay College of Criminal Justice

MULTICULTURAL PERSPECTIVES ON
DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN THE U.S.



III. SOCIAL CLASS: SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS, RELATED ISSUES, AND DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN THE U.S. (1)
  1. General
  2. Homelessness
  3. Shelters / Housing
  4. Poverty
  5. Welfare & Welfare Reform
  6. Unemployment / Employment
  7. Divorce / Displaced Homemakers

A. General

   Anderson, Kristin L. (1997). Gender, Status, and Domestic Violence: An Integration of Feminist and Family Violence Approaches. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 59, 655-669.

   Barber, Michael, Foley, Linda, and Jones, Russell (1999). Evaluations of Aggressive Women: The Effects of Gender, Socioeconomic Status, and Level of Aggression. Violence and Victims, 14(4), 353-.

   Browne, Angela (1995). Reshaping the Rhetoric: The Nexus of Violence, Poverty, and Minority Status in the Lives of Women and Children in the United States. Georgetown Journal on Fighting Poverty, 3, 17-23.

   Byrne, Christina, Resnick, Heidi, and Saunders, Benjamin (1999). The Socioeconomic Impact of Interpersonal Violence on Women.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67(3), 362-.

   Cazenave, N. A. and Straus, M. A. (1979). Race, Class, Network Embeddedness and Family Violence: A Search for Potent Support Systems. Journal of Comparative Family Systems. 10(3), 281-300.

   Centerwall, B. S. (1995). Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Domestic Homicide. Journal of the American Medical Association, 273, 1755-1758.

   Fernandez, Marilyn, Iwamoto, Kichi, and Muscat, Bernadette (1997). Dependency and Severity of Abuse: Impact on Women's Persistence in Utilizing the Court System as Protection Against Domestic Violence. Women & Criminal Justice, 9(1), 39-63.

   Fine, Michelle and Weis, Lois (1998). Crime Stories: A Critical Look Through Race, Ethnicity and Gender. Qualitative Studies in Education, 11(3), 435-460.

   Flitcraft, Anne H. (1995). Clinical Violence Intervention: Lessons from Battered Women. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 6, 187-197.

   Gelles, R. J. (1993). Alcohol and Other Drugs are Associated with Violence--They Are Not the Cause. In R. J. Gelles and D. R. Loseke (Eds.). Current Controversies in Family Violence (pp. 182-196). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

   Grana, Sheryl (2001). Sociocultural Considerations of Domestic Femicide. Journal of Family Violence, 16(4), 421-435.

   Jasinski, Jana L. (1996). Structural Inequalities, Family and Cultural Factors, and Spousal Violence among Anglo and Hispanic Americans. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of New Hampshire, Durham.

   Kantor, G. K., and Straus, M. (1990). The “Drunken Bum” Theory of Wife Beating. In M. A. Straus and R. J. Gelles (Eds.), Physical Violence in American Families: Risk Factors and Adaptations to Violence in 8,145 Families (ch. 12). New Brunswick: Transaction.

   Kaufman Kantor, G., Jasinski, J., and Aldarondo, E. (1994). Sociocultural Status and Incidence of Marital Violence in Hispanic Families. Violence and Victims, 9(3), 207-222.

   Kupenda, Angela Mae (1998). Law, Life and Literature:...How Laws of Domestic Violence, Race, and Class Bind Black Women. Howard Law Journal, 42 (Fall), 1-.

   Lambert, Linda, and Firestone, Juanita (2000). Economic Context and Multiple Abuse Techniques. Violence Against Women, 6 (1, January), 49- 67.

   Lockhart, Lettie and White, Barbara W. (1989). A Reexamination of the Effects of Race and Social Class on the Incidence of Marital Violence: A Search for Reliable Differences. Journal of Marriage and Family, 49(3), 603-610.

   McCloskey, L. A. (1996). Socioeconomic and Coercive Power Within the Family. Gender & Society, 10(4), 449-463.

   Moore, A. M. (1997). Intimate Violence: Does Socio-Economic Status Matter? In Albert Carderelli (Ed.), Violence Between Intimate Partners (pp. 90-100 ).

   Moss, Debra Cassens (1995). Fighting an "Unspeakable Crime": Countries Combating Domestic Violence with Lawsuits, Presumptions. ABA Journal, 81, 46-.

   Miles-Doan, R. (1998). Violence between Spouses and Intimates: Does Neighborhood Context Matter? Social Forces, 77, 623-645.

   Miller, Susan L. (1989). Unintended Side Effects of Pro-Arrest Policies and Their Race and Class Implications for Battered Women: A Cautionary Note. Criminal Justice Policy Review 3(3), 299-317.

   Smikle, Collin, Sorem, Kimberlee, Satin, Andrew, and Hankins, Gary (1996). Physical and Sexual Abuse in a Middle-Class Obstetric Population. Southern Medical Journal, 89(10), 983-988.

   Sorenson, S. B., Upchurch, D. M., and Shen, H. (1996). Violence and Injury in Marital Arguments: Risk Patterns and Gender Differences. American Journal of Public Health, 86(1/January), 35-40.

   Stark, Evan (19__). Re-presenting Woman Battering: From Battered Woman Syndrome to Coercive Control. Albany Law Review 58(4), 973-1026.

    Stark, Evan (forthcoming, 1999). Gendered Violence in the Black Community. In Darnell Hawkins (Ed.), Interpersonal Violence: The Ethnicity, Race and Class Nexus. London: Cambridge University.

   Straus, Murray. (1994). State-to-State Difference in Social Inequality and Social Bonds in Relation to Assaults on Wives in the United States. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 25(1), 7-24.

   Strube, M. and Barbour, L. (1983). The Decision to Leave an Abusive Relationship: Economic Dependence and Psychological Commitment. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 785-793.

   Umberson, D. K., Anderson, K., Glick, J., and Shapiro, A. (1998). Domestic Violence, Personal Contropl and Gender. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 60, 442-452.

   Waits, Kathleen (1998). Battered Women and their Children: Lessons from One Woman's Story. Houston Law Review, 35 (1), 29-108.

   Websdale, Neil and Johnson, Byron (1997). Reducing Woman Battering: The Role of Structural Approaches. Social Justice, 24(1), 54-81.

   Websdale, Neil (1999). Understanding Domestic Homicide. Boston: Northeastern University.

   Websdale, Neil (1998). Rural Woman Battering and the Justice System: An Ethnography. Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage.

   Websdale, Neil (1995). Rural Woman Abuse: The Voices of Kentucky Women. Violence Against Women, 1 (4), 309-338.

   Weis, Lois, Fine, Michelle, Proweller, Amira, Bertram, Corrine, and Marusza, Julia (1998). "I've Slept in Clothes Long Enough": Excavating the Sounds of Domestic Violence among Women in the White Working Class. The Urban Review, 30 (1), 1-27.

   Weitzman, Susan (1999). Upscale Violence: The Lived Experience of Domestic Abuse among Upper Socio-Economic Status Women. Ph.D. Dissertation.

   Weller, Sheila (1988). Middle-Class Murder. Ms (May), 56-61. [See follow-up: Saved: The Children (1988). Ms (Nov), 85.]

   Yllo, Kristi, and Straus, Murray (1990). Patriarchy and Violence against Wives: The Impact of Structural and Normative Factors. In Murray Straus and Richard Gelles (Eds.), Physical Violence in American Families: Risk Factors and Adaptations to Violence in 8,145 Families. New Brunswick: Transaction.

B. Homelessness

   Bard, M. (1994). Organizational and Community Responses to Domestic Abuse and Homelessness. New York: Garland.

   Bassuk, Ellen L. et al (Spring, 1998). Responding to the Needs of Low-Income and Homeless Women Who Are Survivors of Family Violence. Journal of the American Medical Women's Association, 53, 57-64.

   Bassuk, Ellen L. (1995). Lives in Jeopardy: Women and Homelessness. In Willie, Rieker, Kramer, Brain (Eds.) Mental Health, Racism and Sexism. University of Pittsburgh.

   Browne, Angela and Bassuk, Shari S. (1997). Intimate Violence in the Lives of Homeless and Poor Housed Women: Prevalence and Patterns in an Ethnically Diverse Sample. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 67(2), 261-278.

   Mullins, Gretchen P. (1994). The Battered Woman and Homelessness. Journal of Law and Policy 3, 237-.

   Robrecht, Linda C. & Anderson, Debra G. (1998). Interpersonal Violence and the Pregnant Homeless Woman. JOGNN, 27(6), 684-691.

   Wenzel, S.L., Leake, B.D., and Gelberg, L. (2001). Risk Factors for major Violence among Homeless Women. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 16(8), 739-752.

C.Shelters / Housing

   Chanley, S. A., Chanley, J. J., and Campbell, H. E. (2001). Providing Refuge: The Value of Domestic Violence Shelter Services. American Review of Public Administration, 31(4), 393-413.

   Gondolf, Edward W., Fisher, Ellen, and McFerron, J. Richard (1990). The Helpseeking Behavior of Battered Women: An Analysis of 6,000 Shelter Interviews. In Emilio Viano (Ed.), The Victimology Handbook: Research Findings, Treatment and Public Policy (pp. __-__). New York: Garland.

   Gondolf, E. W., Fisher, E., and McFerron, J. R. (1988). Racial Differences among Shelter Residents: A Comparison of Anglo, Black, and Hispanic Battered Women. Journal of Family Violence, 3(1), 39-51.

   Krishnan, Satya, Hilbert, Judith, and VanLeeuwen, Dawn (2001). Domestic Violence and Help-Seeking Behaviors among Rural Women: Results from a Shelter-Based Study. Family & Community Health, 24(1), 28-.

   Krishan, S. P., Hilbert, J.C., Van Leeuwen, D., and Kolia, R. (1997). Documenting Domestic Violence among Ethnically Diverse Populations: Results from a Preliminary Study [on Rural Shelters]. Family and Community Health, 30, 317-325.

   O'Brien, P. H. (1995). Impact of a Battered Women's Shelter on the Self-Perceptions of Women of Color. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Illinois, Chicago.

   Reif, Susan, and Krisher, Lisa (2000). Subsidized Housing and the Unique Needs of Domestic Violence Victims. Clearinghouse Review, 34(1/2), 20-.

   Sullivan, C. M., and Rumptz, M. H. (1994). Adjustment and Needs of African American Women Who Utilized a Domestic Violence Shelter. Violence and Victims, 9(3), 5-19.

   Taylor, M. C., and Hammond, P.V. (1987). See How They Run: Battered Women in Shelters in Old Dominion. In R. L. Hampton, Ed., Violence in the Black Family: Correlates and Consequences (pp. 107-119). Lexington, MA: Lexington.

    Websdale, Neil and Johnson, Byron (1997). Reducing Woman Battering: The Role of Structural Approaches. Social Justice, 24(1), 54-81.

D.Poverty

   Bassuk, Ellen L. et al (Spring, 1998). Responding to the Needs of Low-Income and Homeless Women Who Are Survivors of Family Violence. Journal of the American Medical Women's Association, 53, 57-64.

   Bent-Goodley, Tricia B. (1998). A Poor African-American Community’s Response towards Domestic Violence. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 58(12), 4808-A.

   Browne, Angela (1995). Reshaping the Rhetoric: The Nexus of Violence, Poverty, and Minority Status in the Lives of Women and Children in the U.S. Georgetown Journal on Fighting Poverty, 3, 17-.

   Browne, Angela, Salomon, Amy, and Bassuk, Shari (1999). The Impact of Recent Partner Violence on Poor Women's Capacity to Maintain Work. Violence Against Women, 5(4lApril), 393-426.

   Brush, L.D. (2000). Poverty, Battering, Race, and Welfare Reform: Black-White Differences in Women’s Welfare-to-Work Transitions. Journal of Poverty, 5(1), 67-90.

   Cole, Patricia (2001). Impoverished Women in Violent Partnerships: Designing Services to Fit Their Reality. Violence Against Women, 7(2), 222-.

   Davis, Martha (1999). The Economics of Abuse: How Violence Perpetuates Women’s Poverty. In Ruth Brandwein, ed. Battered Women, Children and Welfare Reform: The Ties that Bind (pp. 17-30). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

   Gagne, Patricia L. (1992). Appalachian Women: Violence and Social Control. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 20(4), 387-415.

   James, Susan and Harris, Beth (1998). Gimme Shelter: Battering and Poverty. In Herb Ettel (Ed.), United for a Fair Economy Study Group, Washington, D.C.

   Meier, Joan (1995). Symposium: New Approaches to Poverty Law, Teaching, and Practice: Domestic Violence and Feminist Jurisprudence: Towards a New Agenda. Boston University Public Interest Law Journal, 4, 339-.

   NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund. (April 28, 1995). A Leadership Summit: The Link Between Violence and Poverty in the Lives of Women and Their Children. George Washington University Law Center, Washington, D.C.

   Raphael, Jody (2000). Saving Bernice: Battered Women, Welfare, and Poverty. Boston: Northeastern University.

   Richmond, Erin Meehan (2001). The Interface of Poverty and Violence Against Women: How Federal and State Welfare Reform Can Best Respond. New England Law Review, 35(2), 569-.

E. Welfare / Welfare Reform

   Brandwein, Ruth (ed.) (1999). Battered Women, Children, and Welfare Reform. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

   Brandwein, Ruth (1999). Family Violence, Women and Welfare. In Ruth Brandwein (Ed.), Battered Women, Children, and Welfare Reform (pp. ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

   Brush, L.D. (2000). Poverty, Battering, Race, and Welfare Reform: Black-White Differences in Women’s Welfare-to-Work Transitions. Journal of Poverty, 5(1), 67-90.

   Brush, Lisa D. (1999). Woman Battering and Welfare Reform: The View from a Welfare-towork Program. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 26(3/September), 49-60.

   Bussiere, Alice & Powell, Roslyn (1999). Welfare Reform and Child Care: Needs of Families Living with Domestic Violence. Clearinghouse Review, 32, 385-394.

   Cole, Pat, and Buel, Sarah (2000). Safety and Financial Security for Battered Women: Necessary Steps for Transitioning from Welfare to Work. Georgetown Journal on Poverty Law and Policy, 7(2), 307-.

   Colten, M. E. and Cosenza, C. (1997). In Harm's Way? Domestic Violence, AFDC Receipt, and Welfare Reform in Massachusetts. A Report from the University of Massachusetts Boston.

   Gonnerman, Jennifer (March 10, 1997). Welfare's Domestic Violence: The Rules Ending Welfare as We Knew It Will Trap Women in Abusive Situations. The Nation.

   Hirsch, A. E. (2001). “The World Was Never a Safe Place for Them:” Abuse, Welfare Reform, and Women with Drug Convictions. Violence Against Women, 7(2), 159-175.

   Kurz, Demie (1998) Women, Welfare and Domestic Violence. Social Justice, 25(1), 105-122.

   Levin, Rebekah (2001). Less Than Ideal: The Reality of Implementing a Welfare-to-Work Program for Domestic Violence Victims and Survivors in Collaboration with the TANF Department. Violence Against Women, 7(2), 211-.

   Libbus, M. Kay, Sable, Marjorie, and Anger, Kathleen (1999). Domestic Violence and Implications for Welfare-to-Work: A Qualitative Investigation. Employee Assistance Journal, 14 (4), 1-.

   Meier, Joan (1997). Domestic Violence, Character, And Social Change in The Welfare Reform Debate. Law & Policy, 19(2), 205-263.

   Orloff, Leslye E. (1999). Access to Public Benefits for Battered Immigrant Women and Children. Journal of Poverty Law and Policy Clearinghouse Review, September/October, 237-256.

   Raphael, Jody (1996). Domestic Violence and Welfare Receipt: Toward a New Feminist Theory of Welfare Dependency. Harvard Women's Law Journal, 19, 201-227.

   Raphael, Jody (1999). Keeping Women Poor: How Domestic Violence Prevents Women from Leaving Welfare and Entering the World of Work. In Ruth Brandwein (ed)., Battered Women, Children, and Welfare Reform (pp. 31-43). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

   Raphael, Jody (2000). Saving Bernice: Battered Women, Welfare, and Poverty. Boston: Northeastern University.

   Richmond, Erin Meehan (2001). The Interface of Poverty and Violence Against Women: How Federal and State Welfare Reform Can Best Respond. New England Law Review, 35(2), 569-.

   Sable, Marjorie, et al. (1999). Domestic Violence among AFDC Recipients: Implications for Welfare-to-Work Programs. Affilia, 14(2), 199-216.

   Tolman, R., M., and Rosen, D. (2001). Guest Editors’ Introduction: Special Issue: Welfare, Poverty, and Domestic Violence. Violence Against Women, 7(2), 123-.

   Tolman, R., M., and Rosen, D. (2001). Domestic Violence in the Lives of Women Receiving Welfare: Mental Health, Substance Dependence, and Economic Well-Being. Violence Against Women, 7(2), 141-158

F. Unemployment / Employment

   Browne, Angela, Salomon, Amy, and Bassuk, Shari (1999). The Impact of Recent Partner Violence on Poor Women's Capacity to Maintain Work. Violence Against Women, 5(4/April), 393-426.

   Jasinski, J. L., Asdigian, N. L., and Kaufman Kantor, G. (in press). Ethnic Adaptations to Occupational Strain: Work Stress, Drinking, and Wife Assault among Anglo and Hispanic Husbands. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.

   Libbus, Kay, Sable, Marjorie, and Anger, Kathleen (1999). Domestic Violence and Implications for Welfare-to-Work: A Qualitative Investigation. Employee Assistance Quarterly, 14 (4), 1-.

   Lloyd, Susan, and Taluc, Nina (1999} .The Effects of Male Violence on Female Employment. Violence Against Women, 5(4), 370-392.

   MacMillan, Ross, and Gartner, Rosemary (1999). When She Brings Home the Bacon: Labor-Force Participation and the risk of Spousal Violence Against Women. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 61(4/Nov), 947-958.

   Perin, Stephanie L. (1999). Employers May Have to Pay When Domestic Violence Goes to Work. The Review of Litigation, 18(2), 365-.

   Raphael, Jody (1997). Domestic Violence as Barrier to Employment. Poverty & Race, 6 (4, July/August), 11-12.

   Raphael, Jody (1999). Keeping Women Poor: How Domestic Violence Prevents Women from Leaving Welfare and Entering the World of Work. In Ruth Brandwein (ed.), Battered Women, Children, and Welfare Reform: The Ties that Bind (pp. 31-43). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

   Rivera, C. (2001). Violence in the Workplace. From Domestic Disputes and Stalking to Coworker vs. Coworker, Violence in the Workplace is a Frightening Reality that Managers Must Deal With. Office Solutions, 18(9), 38-41. (Quality Publishing).

   Runge, Robin (1998). Double Jeopardy: Victims of Domestic Violence in the Workplace: Twice the Abuse. Human Rights, 25(2), 19-24. American Bar Association.

   Sable, Marjorie, et al. (1999). Domestic Violence among AFDC Recipients: Implications for Welfare-to-Work Programs. Affilia, 14(2), 199-216.

   Shuman-Austin, L'Nayim (2000). Is Leaving Work to Obtain Safety "Good Cause" to Leave Employment?--Providing Unemployment Insurance to Victims of Domestic Violence in Washington State. Seattle University Law Review, 23, 797-847.

   Urban, Beverly Younger, and Bennett, Larry (1999). When the Community Punches a Time Clock: Evaluating a Collaborative Workplace Domestic Abuse Prevention Program. Violence Against Women, 5(10), 1178-1193.

   Van Hightower, Nikki, Gorton, Joe, and Demoss, Casey Lee. (2000) Predictive Models of Domestic Violence and Fear of Intimate Partners among Migrant and Seasonal Farm Worker Women. Journal of Family Violence, 15(2), 137-154.

G. Divorce / Displaced Homemakers

   Kupenda, Angela Mae (1998). Law, Life and Literature: A Critical Reflection of Life and Literature to Illuminate How Laws of Domestic Violence, Race, and Class Bind Black Women. Howard Law Journal 42, 1-.

   Kurz, Demie (1995). Understanding Divorce and Divorced Women (pp.13-); How Marriages End (pp.43-75). In Richer for Poorer: Mothers Confront Divorce. New York: Routledge.

   Molina, Olga (2000). Divorce and Domestic Violence among African American Women. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 34(1/2), 131-141.

   O’Brien, J. (1974). Violence in Divorce Prone Families. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 33, 692-698.


Footnotes

(1) Social class is equally as important as race, gender, sexual orientation--as both social structural and cultural issues. Social class helps to determine one’s life chances in the U.S. However, it is typical of U.S. research and literature to deny the key place that class differences play in our society. Thus, the categories below are very tentative because of this inattention to the importance of class generally as well as within domestic violence literature. Some of the categories here are not so much directly translatable from social class theory, but are empirical referents to domestic violence among poorer social classes. The literature is more empiricist and ahistorical. In addition, we also do not know very much about domestic violence in the lives of rich or middle class women either. This is due not only to the absence of reference to social class and domestic violence, but also, in part, due to their access to certain resources that may protect them in different ways than poorer women. The privilege experienced by some middle class women, who are nevertheless, brutally treated by their husbands, is discussed in Kathleen Waits' "Battered Women and their Children: Lessons from One Woman's Story." (see item II, 3 above).

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