Lloyd Sealy Library                                                                                                                    John Jay College of Criminal Justice


A Research Guide to the Lloyd Sealy Library
by Nancy Egan
Reference Librarian

This guide is designed to serve as an introduction to the resources in the John Jay College Library in the areas of Asian criminal justice and legal studies and Asian American criminal justice and legal studies. The aim of this guide is to help the users of the John Jay Library to locate the material that the Library has in this field and suggest some additional resources available in New York City.

Different sources present variations in the countries that make up Asia. For the purposes of this guide, “Asia” is considered the far eastern area of the continent including China, Japan, and Korea; the southern area of the continent including Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam; the south western area of the continent including India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka; the islands off of the southern coast of the continent including the Philippines, Malaysia, and Indonesia; and most of what was formerly referred to as the Soviet Union. Different sources vary in coverage of this latter area and refer to it alternatively as the USSR, the Soviet Union, or Russia, depending on geographic intent or time period. Also, some sources regard this area as part of  Eastern Europe as opposed to Asia. Therefore, this guide will point out sources which cover Russia within its Eastern European sections or volumes, or which do not include Russia in their coverage. The people from all Asian countries who emigrated to the United States are considered Asian Americans in this guide. 

The first and second sections of the guide have been devoted to Asian and Asian American criminal justice and legal studies respectively.  It was arranged in this manner so that the researcher of Asian American studies may first look through the sources pertaining to Asia to gain an understanding of the history of the cultures and the laws which govern them, the possible sociological, political, or economic causes of criminal behavior, and the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of corrections in these groups. The section on Asian American criminal justice is concerned with the study of criminal behavior among these ethnic groups and the legal system’s response as well as Asian American victimization by criminals or by the legal system in this country. 

While the bibliography concentrates largely on the materials available in the reference and reference law collections, much more information is available in the circulation and periodical collections. This guide will go over any databases or indexes needed to search for information in these sources.  In addition, electronic resources as well as many libraries in the New York City area can also be consulted. The third section of this guide contains information on all of these resources. 



               International Constitutions



      Using CUNY+, The Library Catalog







      Print Indexes



      Internet Resources



                   Libraries in New York City With Extensive Holdings of Asain or
               Asian American Materials



Reference DS502.B4
Bibliography of Asian studies. Ann Arbor, MI: The Association for Asian Studies.

This series helps provide access to predominantly English-language materials, many of which are published in Asia.  It is arranged alphabetically by country and then by subject heading.  The Library has volumes from 1969 to 1986.

Reference DS 31.E53
Encyclopedia of Asian history. (1988). (Vols. 1-4). New York: Scribner. 1988

Arranged in one alphabetical list in this four volume work are entries for land masses, key figures, and major movements or entities (social, cultural, economic, industrial, and political) which shaped Asia and its history. Russia is not included.

Reference GN 307.E53
Encyclopedia of world cultures. (1991). (Vols. I-X). Boston: G. K. Hall. 1991

Volumes III, IV, and VI cover South Asia, East and Southeast Asia, and Russia and Eurasia/China, respectively. In addition to brief essays on each of the country’s ethnic groups, lengthy introductions include discussions of history, recent developments, and minority policies.

Reference JA 51.S7
Statesman’s year-book. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

This is an annual guide on all the countries of the world.  Essays contain background information and particular volumes address key issues so it is worthwhile to go through volumes representing years in which major events took place. Library holdings date from  1986/1987.

Reference DS 5.W5
Wint, G. (1966). Asia: A handbook. New York: Praeger.

Although dated, the essays provide excellent general background material about the countries as well as certain aspects of the countries’ societies and international relationships. In addition, the texts of the most important post-World War II treaties and agreements are provided.

Reference G 63.W67
Worldmark encyclopedia of the nations. (8th ed.). (1995). (Vols. 1-5). New York: 

Volumes 4 and 5 cover Asia and Australasia, and Europe respectively (volume 5 contains information on Russia). Lengthy essays on countries include sections on government, political parties, local government and the judicial system.


Reference DS 706.B4
Berton, P., and Wu E. (1967). Contemporary China: A research guide. Stanford, CA:   Hoover Institution.

This is a bibliographic guide to both general and selected reference works on China.  One  chapter covers laws and regulations.  Most entries refer to English-language materials and are accompanied by lengthy annotations.

Reference DS 705.C35
The Cambridge encyclopedia of China. (2nd ed.). (1991). Cambridge, England: 
   Cambridge University Press.

This is a single-volume but comprehensive work on China. Short essays, presented in chronological order begin with antiquity and conclude with the People’s Republic and Taiwan in 1979. In addition, there are lengthier entries pertaining to society, politics, art, and philosophy.

Reference DS 334.9.C36 1989
The Cambridge encyclopedia of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, 
   Bhutan and the Maldives. (1989). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University 

Although a general reference, there is a section on “the laws under which people live” which briefly describes the legal systems in those countries.  Search the index by individual countries to find information on subheadings like police, law, corruption, and constitution.

Reference DK 14.C35 1994
The Cambridge encyclopedia of Russia and the former Soviet Union.  (2nd ed.). 
   (1994). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Although a general reference, there is a section on “the Constitution and the Legal and Penal System” which offers a history of the constitution, and descriptions of the systems and of law enforcement agencies.

Reference DS 805.J263 1993
Japan: An illustrated encyclopedia. (1st ed.). (1993). (Vols. 1-2). Tokyo: Kodansha 

This is an excellent general reference tool with brief essays arranged alphabetically by subject. An index and cross references help to tie together topics.


Formerly the Area Handbook series developed under the auspices of the United States Army, these separately authored volumes serve as excellent general reference tools on individual countries. In addition,  the indexes can be searched for specific topics such as court system, crime and punishment, criminal justice system, law, legal codes, legal system, and police. These are revised periodically and each study gives the date that the research for it was completed (these are also available online. See the section on Worldwide Web resources). The most recent copies that the Library holds for each can be found in the stacks using the following call numbers:

Afghanistan: DS351.5.A34

Burma: DS527.4.B88

China: DS706.C489 Stacks and reference

India:  DS407.I4465

Indonesia: DS615.I518

Japan: DS806.J223

Laos: DS555.3.L34

Malaysia: DS592.M345

Mongolia: DS798.M65

North Korea: DS932.N662

Pakistan: DS376.9.P376

Phillipines: DS655.P598 

Singapore: DS609.S55

South Korea: DS902.S68

Soviet Union: DK17.S6396

Sri Lanka: DS 489.S68

Thailand: DS563.5.H46

Vietnam: DS 556.3.V54


Government and Political Systems and Issues

Reference JC 571.U48a
Voice of America. Country reports on human rights practices. Washington, DC: 
   Department of State.

This annual publication gives detailed descriptions of and accounts of violations of human rights, civil liberties, and political rights issues.  Attention is paid to violations by the police and other branches of the criminal justice systems as well as by governments or political entities. Library holdings date from 1979.

Reference JF 37.P6
Political handbook of the world. New York: McGraw-Hill Book.

An annual publication covering one hundred and sixty countries.  Essays cover government and political systems as well as foreign relations and current issues.  Entries provide thorough background material and annual highlights.  Library holdings date from 1980.

Legal Systems and the Law

Reference Law K38.R49
Foreign law: Current sources of codes and legislation in jurisdictions of the 
   world. (Vols. I-III). Littleton, CO: B. Rothman.

Volumes II and III cover Western and Eastern Europe and the European Communities (this volume includes Russia) and Africa, Asia and Australia respectively. This is a loose-leaf reference service which is constantly updated. This bibliography provides sources for law, treatises, and other legal documents in an alphabetical by subject arrangement within each country.

Reference Law K530.M6
Modern legal systems encyclopedia. (Vols. 1-10). Buffalo: S. Hein.

Volumes 2, 8, and 9 cover the Pacific Basin, Eastern Europe, and Asia respectively. This is an updated loose-leaf reference service providing current entries.  Lengthy, separately authored essays offer excellent descriptions of legal systems around the world.

Reference Law K520.B4
Szladits’ Bibliography on Foreign and Comparative Law.  Dobbs Ferry, NY: 
   Parker School of Foreign and Comparative Law, Columbia University.

This bibliographic series covers materials published from 1790 to 1990. Both books and articles are arranged alphabetically by topic. A geographic index provides easy access to sources on Asia or individual Asian countries.

Criminal Justice and Criminology

Reference HV6025. B44
Beirne, P., and Hill, J. (1991). Comparative criminology: An annotated bibliography.
   New York: Greenwood Press. 1991

Entries are accessed via the subject index.  Topics range from general legal issues to specific violent crimes.

Reference Law KNC 985.C75 1995
Criminal justice profiles of Asia: Investigation, prosecution, and trial. (1995). 
   Tokyo: United Nations Asia and Far East Institute.

Profiles of various Asian countries describe the various stages of investigation, arrest, trial, and corrections.  Many of the profiles contain statistics and structural diagrams.

Reference HV 6024.C87
Curriculum and course development project: International criminal justice 
   systems. (1984). [s.l.]: Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, University of 

Reference HV6024. C87 1986
International criminal justice systems II. (1986). Omaha: Academy of Criminal 
   Justice Sciences, University of Nebraska.

Course designs in comparative criminal justice are provided for various Asian countries.  In addition to lengthy essays, most entries provide outlines and bibliographies.

Reference HV 6028.I57 1983
International handbook of contemporary developments in criminology: Europe, 
   Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. (1983). (Vols. 1-2). Westport, CT: Greenwood 

These separately authored articles regarding the roots of criminology and current practices in various countries are followed by useful bibliographies.

Reference HV 7243.I556 1992a
International perspectives: Crime, justice, and public order. (1992). New York: 
   John Jay College of Criminal Justice.

This represents the proceedings of a conference sponsored by John Jay College and St. Petersburg State University on criminal justice topics. The conference was conducted to help establish relationships between Eastern and Western counterparts.

Reference HV 6017.E55 1989
Nash, J. R. (1989). Encyclopedia of world crime: Criminal justice, criminology, 
   and law enforcement. (1st ed.). (Vols. I - VI). Wilmette, IL: Crimebooks.

Entries are in one alphabetical list by criminal profession, offender, organization, or event.  Look here for brief descriptions of the Asian organized crime societies or otherwise notorious Asians. In the supplement (Vol. IV), the principal societies and member hierarchy are outlined.


Reference HV7921 .W54
Whitehouse, J. E. (1980). A police bibliography. New York: AMS Press.

Entries represent sources published through 1976.  The section on Police of the World in the chapter on Comparative Police Administration offers entries on Asia and on the individual countries.  There are no annotations.

Reference HV 7901.K87 1988
World encyclopedia of police forces and penal systems. (1988). New York: Facts 
   on File.

In this one-volume work which covers 183 countries, entries describe recruitment and training practices as well as the structure and organization of the police forces and penal systems. Some entries offer statistics.

Reference HV 7921.A59 1985
Andrade, J. (1985). World police and paramilitary forces. New York: Macmillan.

In addition to brief descriptions, most entries give addresses and phone numbers of law enforcement agencies.

Reference HV 7921.B424
Becker, H. K., and Becker, D. L. (1986). Handbook of the world’s police. Metuchen, 
   NJ: Scarecrow Press.

In addition to brief descriptions, country demographic profiles are provided.

Reference HV7903.C7
Cramer, J. (1964). The world’s police. London: Cassell.

In addition to lengthy essays and photographs, an interesting first chapter offers a history of policing from ancient times. 


Reference HV8593.A44 1984
Torture in the eighties. (1984). London: Amnesty International.

While many of the reports in the text are of politically motivated incidents,  there are several accounts of the misuse of powers within the criminal justice systems of various countries.

Reference HV9276.5.A47 1994
Zvekic, U. (Ed.). (1994). Alternatives to imprisonment in comparative 
   perspective. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.

This work contains separately authored articles and a lengthy discussion of alternatives to imprisonment in Asia and the Pacific region with emphasis on the individual countries.

Reference HV9276.5.A472 1994
Zvekic, U. and Alvazzi del Frate, A. (Eds.). (1994). Alternatives to imprisonment in 
   comparative perspective: Bibliography. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.

Arranged alphabetically and followed by a subject index, the entries deal largely with the United States and Europe; however, there are some entries pertaining to Asia (particularly India and Japan). Entries cover literature published from 1980 to 1989. 



Reference Law KNQ 3.H6 1972
Ho, P. (1972). The People’s Republic of China and international law: A selective 
   bibliography of Chinese sources. Washington, DC: Library of Congress.

This bibliography was developed as a means to explore international law in light of China’s entry into the United Nations.  There are few annotations.

Reference Law KNQ 3.J64 1990
Johnson, C. A. (1990). Chinese law: A bibliography of selected English-language 
   materials. Washington, DC: Library of Congress.

This is a continuation of the Pinard bibliography (see below). Like its predecessor, it contains a lengthy introduction which in this case includes discussions on legislative authority, the National People’s Congress, the State Council, and local governments.

Reference DS777.55.04
Oksenberg, M. C., Bateman, N., and Anderson, J. B. (1970). A bibliography of 
   secondary English language literature on contemporary Chinese politics. New 
   York: Columbia University Press.

A lengthy essay precedes a general bibliography with no annotations.

Reference Law KNQ 3.P55 1983
Pinard, J. L. (1983). The People’s Republic of China: A bibliography of selected 
   English-language legal materials. Washington, DC: Library of Congress.

Developed in response to the proliferation of laws and legal materials in post-Mao China, this work covers materials in 26 areas of law.  A lengthy introduction includes discussions of the legislative process, categories of law, and legal terminology.  The entries are not annotated.

Reference HS310.T46
Teng, S. (1981). Protest and crime in China: A bibliography of secret 
   associations, popular uprisings, peasant rebellions. New York: Garland.

The first half contains occidental (largely English) language entries in one alphabetical by author or subject list.  The index offers various crime, law, and police headings.


Reference HV 8247.E53 1993
Ghosh, S. K., and Rustamji, K. F. (Eds.). (1993). Encyclopaedia of police in India.
   (Vols. 1-2). New Delhi: Ashish.

These volumes deal with the evolution of the police system in India and include lengthy essays on the history of criminal justice (beginning in 324 B.C.) in India and the organization of the police.


Reference HV 8257.A2 P37 1984
Parker, L. C. (1984). The Japanese police system today: An American 
   perspective.  Tokyo: Kodansha International.

In addition to providing information on the police, there is a comparison of crime in the United States and Japan and a discussion of other branches of the criminal justice system in Japan.


Reference Law KPA 3.B34 1980
Baik, C. Korean law: An annotated bibliography of English-language 
   monographs.  (1980). Washington, DC: Library of Congress.

Brief annotations provide information about the Korean Law collection in the Library of Congress.

Reference HV 7115.5 .C75a
Korean Institute of Criminology. (1994). Crime and criminal justice in Korea: KIC 
   research abstracts. (Vol. 1). Seoul, Republic of Korea: Korean Institute of 

A summary of projects from the institute is offered in English and German.  Topics cover crime in general, juvenile delinquency, corrections, and criminal law and procedure. 


Reference KLA68.B87 1988
Butler, W. E. (1988). Soviet law. (2nd ed.). Stoneham, MA: Butterworths. 

This offers a broad treatment to the subject of law in the Soviet Union and includes discussions on the historical background of the law, legal education, and the Soviet legal profession.

Reference law KLA74.H39 1977
Hazard, J. N., Butler, W. E., and Maggs, P. B. (1977). The Soviet legal system.  (3rd 
   ed.). Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana.

In addition to lengthy descriptions of the various aspects of the Soviet legal system, an appendix with samples of legal forms is provided.

Reference law KLA500.S6813 1988
Sadikov, O. N. (Ed.). (1988). Soviet civil law. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.

This examines Soviet civil and family law as it existed under state ownership.

Reference HV 9712.S4913 1982
Shifrin, A. (1982). The first guidebook to prisons and concentration camps of the 
   Soviet Union. New York: Bantam Books.

This text offers a tour of over 2000 prisons and concentration camps in the Soviet Union.  It is a disturbing portrayal of the penal system through the late 1970’s. Includes photographs and drawings.

Reference HV8224.S5
Smith, E. E. The Okhrana--the Russian Department of Police: A bibliography.
   (1967). Stanford, CT: The Hoover Institution.

Although few of the entries refer to English language texts, all the annotations are in English.  These are highly descriptive and can be used to gain an understanding of the Okhrana’s history, personnel, and operations.

Reference HV7012 .S64 1969
Solomon, P. H. Soviet criminology: A selective bibliography. (1969). Cambridge, 
   England: University of Cambridge.

An excellent introductory essay briefly describes the history of criminology in the Soviet Union, the developments in the field after Stalin, and the importance to Western societies of the study of Soviet criminology.  The brief annotations, however, indicate only a few English language materials.

Reference law KJC510.A15 L39 no. 20
Soviet law after Stalin: Social engineering through law. (1978). (Pt. 2). Leyden, the 
   Netherlands: A. W. Sijthoff.

Soviet law after Stalin: Soviet institutions and the administration. (1979). (Pt. 3).  Leyden, the    Netherlands: A. W. Sijthoff.

An objective presentation is provided of post-Stalin legal activity and reform.  The Library does not have the first part. Hunter College Library has all three parts in their circulation collection. Check DPAC for its status.


Reference DS 563.5.T4
Thai government and its setting: A selective, annotated bibliography. (1967). 
   Bangkok: National Institute of Development Administration.

This covers Thai history as well as contemporary government and politics, public administration, the economy, and socio-cultural characteristics. The first part of the book is in English and covers English-language materials.


Reference law K 3157.E5 P4 1965
Constitutions of nations. (Rev. 3rd ed.). (1966). (Vols. I-IV). The Hague, the 
   Netherlands: Nijhoff.

Volumes II and III cover Asia and Europe respectively (Europe includes Russia). In addition to the countries’ constitutions, brief introductory essays provide summary information about the governments’ structures. 



Reference Law KNQ202 1982
The Constitution of the People’s Republic of China. (1st ed). (1983). Elmsford, 
   NY: Pergamon Press.

Reference Law K5014.A5 C4
The criminal code of the People’s Republic of China. (1982). Littleton, CO: B. 

Reference Law KNQ3794.51980 .A7 1984
The criminal law and the criminal procedure law of the People’s Republic of 
   China. (1st ed.). (1984). Beijing: Foreign Languages Press.

Reference Law K5014.A5 C45 1985
The criminal procedure code of the People’s Republic of China and related 
   documents. (1985). Littleton, CO: B. Rothman.

Reference Law KNQ 13 1976
Selected legal documents of the People’s Republic of China. (1976). (Vols. 1-2). 
   Arlington, VA: University Publications of America.

This includes the original Constitution of the People’s Republic of China (1954), as well as several other key documents generated throughout the following two decades.


Reference Law KNX 2064.31946 .A52 1979
Constitution of Japan and criminal statutes. (1957/1979). Washington, DC: 
   University Publications of America.

This work also contains a chronological table of criminal statutes (1868-1957).

Reference Law K5014.A5 J3
A preparatory draft for the revised penal code of Japan, 1961. (1964). South 


Reference Law K5014.A5 K6
The Korean criminal code. (1960). South Hackensack, NJ: B. Rothman.


Check Cuny+ for call number
Butler, W. E. (Ed.). (1992). Basic legal documents of the Soviet legal system. (3rd 
   ed.). Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana.

Reference law KLA 74.S68 1978
Butler, W. E. (Comp.). (1978). The Soviet legal system. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana.

This provides full texts of important legislation and documents.

Reference Law KLA 74.S6513 1981
Legislative Acts of the USSR: Book one, 1977-1979. (1981). Moscow: Progress.
Legislative Acts of the USSR: Book four, 1951-1983. (1984). Moscow: Progress.

These contain Legislative acts passed between 1951 and 1983. The Library does not have books 2 and 3. The Science and Business Library of the New York Public Library has books 1 and 3 and the Columbia Law Library has all six books. The latter can only be accessed with a Metro Library Card which can be obtained at the John Jay Library reference desk.

Reference Law KLA 2460. P7213 1987
Rights of Soviet citizens: Collected normative acts. (1987). Moscow: Progress.

This includes the collected acts and the applicable parts of the Constitution regarding citizens’ rights in the Soviet Union.

Reference Law KJC 510.A15 L39 no. 23
The Soviet codes of law. (1980). Rockville, MD: Sijthoff and Noordhoff.

Reference Law KLA 3794.31972 B47 1972
Soviet criminal law and procedure: The RSFSR codes. (2nd ed.). (1972). 
   Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.


Reference HV7419.I 57 1987
International directory of correctional administrations. (1987). College Park, MD: 
   American Correctional Association.

This is arranged alphabetically by country within each continent.  Each entry has some brief introductory material about the country’s legal and correctional systems. 

Reference Law K68.M3
Martindale-Hubbell international law directory. (1993). (Vols.I-II). Summit, NJ: 

Volume I includes Asia in its coverage. Entries contain firm profiles and partners’ biographies.  Several indexes include a names index and an areas of practice index.

Reference HV6024.5 W67
A world directory of criminological institutes.  (6th ed.). (1995). Rome: United 
   Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute.

Institutions are arranged by country and then listed alphabetically. The Library has older editions of the directory, dating back to 1978.


In addition to the following print sources, there are many sources available on the Internet.  Check the section on the World Wide Web for more information.

When using statistics from other countries it is very important to read any introductory or explanatory material accompanying the statistics as various governmental or statistical agencies may have different definitions as to what the numbers represent.  For example, in the Republic of China (Taiwan), the number which represents "theft" does not include the stealing of motorcycles.


Many countries publish an annual volume which brings together all the major statistical data for that country. The Library has a microfiche collection of these annual volumes called Current National Statistical Compendiums. These can be located in the microfiche cabinets under the call number AC1.C8.  In some countries’ annual volumes you will find data on crimes, policing, prisons, public expenditures, and other items.  The Library stopped collecting these several years ago so that the most recent volumes are from 1985. Baruch College collected these through 1992 and New York University keeps its collection current. The latter can only be accessed with a Metro Library Card which can be obtained at the John Jay Library Reference Desk. 

Reference HV 7076.C75 1994
Crime trends in Asia and the Pacific: The fourth United Nations survey. (1994). 
   Tokyo: United Nations Asia and Far East Institute.

Statistics from several Asian countries covering the years 1986 to 1990 are presented in tables and graphs accompanied by introductory materials.  In addition, a summary essay draws conclusions as to crime trends in the region. This source does not include Russia.

Reference HV 6208.I 57a
Statistiques criminelles internationales. Paris: International Criminal Police 

Statistics regarding the number of reported crimes, cases solved and offenders are available for most Asian countries. The Library has this series dating from 1975.

Reference HA12.5.U63
Statistical yearbook. New York: Department for Economic and Social Information 
   and Policy Analysis, United Nations.

While several tables containing economic, social (including AIDS, literacy, and culture statistics), and industry statistics are included, there are no criminal justice statistics. The Library has this series dating from 1971.

Reference HA 1665.S7
Statistical yearbook for Asia and the Pacific. Bangkok: Economic and Social 
   Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations.

While several tables containing economic, social, and industry statistics are included, there are no criminal justice statistics. The Library has this series dating from 1986.

Reference Index Area
Criminal justice periodical index.  Ann Arbor, MI: UMI.

This is a general criminal justice index (see print indexes); however, articles containing statistics are indexed under headings like criminal statistics.  The headings are subdivided geographically (ex. criminal statistics--China).


Reference Law KJC 510.A15 L39 no. 29
The Soviet system of justice: figures and policy. Berg, G. P. Van Den. (1985). 
   Dordrecht, the Netherlands: M. Nijhoff.

This discussion of the Soviet Court system is accompanied by historical statistics and demographic data.  Sentencing and corrections are given prominence in this work.

Reference HV 7013.U17 1992
Serio, J. (1992). USSR crime statistics and summaries: 1989 and 1990. Chicago: 
   The University of Illinois in Chicago.

This work contains several statistics and explanatory notes covering the period.


The Library subscribes to hundreds of journals and magazines which are indexed in the electronic and print indexes discussed in Section III of this guide. Many of these periodicals contain pertinent articles on various topics relating to Asians and Asian Americans. The following periodicals, however, may be of particular interest as their scope is chiefly international or Asian and their focus is on criminal justice or law. 

Bound Periodicals HV6201.I5
International journal of comparative and applied criminal justice.

This is a semiannual journal which features many articles pertaining to criminal justice matters in Asian countries.  It is indexed in Criminal justice abstracts, Criminal justice periodicals index, and the NCJRS. The Library has from 1977 to the present.

Bound Periodicals HV6001.I4
International journal of the sociology of law.

This is a quarterly journal which features many articles pertaining to  criminal justice matters in Asian countries. It is indexed in Criminal justice abstracts, Criminal justice periodicals index, DPER, Sociofile, and the NCJRS. The Library has from 1979 to the present.

Bound Periodicals HV7431.U49
UNAFEI newsletter.

This is the official newsletter of the United Nations Asia and Far East Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders.  The publication reports on its international training courses and seminars, offers administrative news, and  letters from the director. The Library has from 1987 to the present. 

Bound Periodicals DK 266.A2S6
Russian politics and law: A journal of translations.

This quarterly journal contains translations of articles from Russian publications. It deals largely with politics but also covers law and legal matters.  Prior to 1992, the journal was entitled Soviet Law and Government. It is indexed in Criminal justice abstracts. The Library has from 1974 to the present.

Bound Periodicals K3.R508
Criminal law journal: A monthly law report.

This journal is published in India, and deals largely with Indian law.  An annual subject index and list of cases is provided. The Library has from 1979 to 1996.

Bound Periodicals HV6201.I68
Indian journal of criminology.

This is a semiannual journal containing articles on various topics in criminal justice in India.  It is indexed in Criminal justice abstracts, and the NCJRS. The Library has from 1973 to 1995.



Reference 1975
Caselli, R. (1975). The minority experience: A basic bibliography of American 
   ethnic studies. (Rev. ed.) Santa Rosa, CA: Sonoma County Office of Education.

This bibliography covers articles from the early 1900’s to the time of publication. A chapter devoted to Asian Americans pertains mostly to Japanese and Chinese Americans in the United States. Although not geared toward criminal justice issues, there are articles on labor laws and the Japanese internment. Any items pertaining to Russians are covered in the Euro-American chapter.

Reference E 184.A1 E79
Ethnic Groups. (Vols. 1-5). Boca Raton: Social Issue Resources Series.

This series contains a collection of newspaper and magazine articles from sources across the country. Each volume represents a five year time period. The Library has 1969-1979; 1980-1984; 1985-89; 1990-94; and an incomplete looseleaf binder for 1995-99. Many articles contain information pertaining to Asian Americans. Specific subjects can be located via an index.

Reference Desk E 184.A1 G14 1995
Gale encyclopedia of multicultural America. (1995). (Vols. 1-2).  New York: Gale 

Alphabetically arranged entries provide excellent, informative essays on ethnic groups in the United States.  In addition, many of the essays provide statistics. Entries are followed by lists of media resources, as well as organizations and associations, museums and research centers, and sources for additional study.

Reference Desk E184.A1 H35
Harvard encyclopedia of American ethnic groups.  (1980). Cambridge, MA: 
   Harvard University Press.

One alphabetical arrangement includes entries on ethnic groups as well as concepts and issues dealing with ethnicity. In addition, many of the essays provide statistics on immigration and demographics. Entries are followed by bibliographies as well as locations of collections for further study.

Reference E 184.A1 B426 1981

Johns, S. B. (1981). Ethnic almanac. (1st ed.). Garden City, NY: Dolphin Books.

Provides facts and highlights pertaining to individual ethnic groups in the United States.

Reference E184.A1 M5
Miller, W. C. (1976). A comprehensive bibliography for the study of American 
   minorities. (Vols. 1-2). New York: New York University Press.

The section on Asian Americans is broken down to the Chinese American, Japanese American, Filipino American, and Asian American experiences.  Subheadings include Crime and the Law, Secret Societies, and Prejudice. Russian materials are provided in the section from Eastern Europe and the Balkans.


Reference JV6455 .F67 1978
Fox, J. W., and Fox, M. A. (1978). Illegal immigration: A bibliography, 1968-1978.
   Monticello, IL: Vance Bibliographies.

Arranged by format and then alphabetically.  As there are no annotations, it is often difficult to determine the content of the article or whether or not it pertains to the illegal immigration of Asian ethnic cultures. Some titles, however, are self explanatory.

Reference HV 6446 .I46 1986
The impact: Organized crime today. Report to the President and the Attorney 
   General. (1986). Washington, DC: President’s Commission on Organized Crime.

This handbook presents explanations of certain of the Commission’s activities as well as a definition of organized crime and its impact in the United States. It contains a useful cumulative index to all reports and hearings generated by this commission that can be searched for topics on Asian American (and countries of origin) involvement in organized crime.  Every indicated report or hearing is listed in the index and is available in the Library. Any of these can be found via a title search in DPAC (ex. t=organized crime of Asian origin).

Reference HV6197 .U5 C48 1981
Index to minorities and criminal justice. (1981). Albany, NY: State University of New 
   York at Albany.

An alphabetical by subject index provides information under the subject heading “Asian Americans”. Bibliographical information and in some cases annotations are then provided in an alphabetical  author list.

Reference HV 9950 .R32 1995
Racial and ethnic bias in the courts bibliography. (1995). Williamsburg, VA: The 

Materials from states and various publications are listed by states and agencies. Most of the entries concern minorities or racism in general.

Reference HV 6439 .U5 T66 1994
Topical bibliography: Gangs. (1994). Rockville, MD: National Criminal Justice 
   Reference Service.

Computer generated lists of entries pertaining to juvenile gangs and containing lengthy annotations are provided.  Search the subject indexes under the heading Asian Americans. The Library has 1985, 1989, and 1994. 

Reference HV 6439. U5 W27
Watts, T. J. (1988). The new gangs: Young, armed and dangerous. Monticello, IL: 
   Vance Bibliographies.

This is arranged by format and then alphabetically by entry.  As there are no annotations, it is often difficult to determine the content of the article or whether or not it pertains to Asian American gangs.  Some titles; however, are self explanatory.


Stacks KF 4848. A83 K56 1994
Kim, H. A legal history of Asian Americans, 1790-1990. (1994) Westport, CT: 
   Greenwood Press.

Pertaining to ethnic groups from Far Eastern cultures, it offers an excellent historical account of the many injustices suffered by these people by the American legal system. The time period prior to 1790 (from 1609) is also discussed in this text as it pertains to the antiforeign sentiments of colonial America.

Reference E184 .06 D53 1986
Kim, H. Dictionary of Asian American history. (1986) Westport, CT: Greenwood 

Lengthy essays are provided on various Asian groups in the United States.  There is a chapter on Asian Americans and American Justice which deals largely with immigration and naturalization laws.  An alphabetically arranged dictionary includes entries on groups, people, and movements of significance to these ethnic cultures.


Reference E 184 .A1 G93 1995/96
Boyd, A. Guide to multicultural resources. (1995/1996). Madison, WI: Praxis.

Guide to media, services, organizations, and schools with respect to various American ethnic groups.

Reference E 184.A1 M544 1992
Minority organizations: a national directory. (4th ed.) (1992). Garrett Park, MD: 
   Garrett Park Press.

Organizations are listed in alphabetical order. In addition, introductory material provides immigrant figures for the years 1929 and 1987, minority population by group, region and state for 1990 and a breakdown of Asian American population by group in 1990 and projections for 2010.


Criminal justice statistics for ethnic groups in the United States are hard to find as the census bureau has always had difficulty in defining race or ethnicity, particularly in individuals who are several generations removed from immigrant ancestors or who are of mixed race. As a result, many statistical sources break down race to white, black, and other; or in some cases white, black, hispanic, and other. Some sources, however, are generated by means other than the census and more narrowly define ethnic groups. When using these statistics you should always consider the source of the data. The following sources do contain some statistics specific to Americans of an Asian or Pacific Islander background.

Reference Desk HV6787 .A27
Sourcebook of criminal justice statistics.  Washington, DC: United States 
   Department of Justice.

This is a comprehensive guide to criminal justice statistics. Several criminal and victimization statistical tables with respect to race are offered. Statistics are taken from diverse sources published under the supervision of the Bureau of Justice Statistics. The library has from 1973 to the present. The most recent volume is kept at the reference desk.

Reference JV6414.A4
Statistical yearbook of the immigration and naturalization service. Washington, 
   DC: United States Department of Justice.

Many of these tables contain statistics regarding immigrant demographics. There is some information on illegal aliens and deportation.

Reference HV 6787 .S74 1996
Statistics on crime and punishment. (1996). Detroit: Gale Research.

Very few tables contain information on Asians specifically.  However, there are statistics for this ethnic group with regard to victims and offenders of racially-biased hate crimes, racial diversity of arrested persons, and number of persons on probation.

Reference Desk HV 6787 .A3
Uniform crime reports for the United States. Washington, DC: United States 
   Department of Justice.

While most race breakdowns are limited to white, black, and “other”, total arrests by race, city arrests by race, suburban arrests by race, and rural arrests by race do provide a number for Asians or Pacific Islanders. The library has from 1930 to the present.  The most recent volume is kept at the reference desk.



The previous sections described pertinent materials from the reference section of the Library. John Jay Library has many more materials regarding these topics in both its circulation and periodical collections. In addition, there is still more information to be found on the Internet. Since there are far too many items to be listed separately, this section was designed to help you find the materials on your own.


CUNY+ is the computerized catalog which John Jay shares with all of the CUNY libraries.  There is an introductory guide to using CUNY+ available at the reference desk and an online tutorial which can be accessed via the CD-ROM terminals (located near the reference desk) or via the terminals in the electronic classroom. In addition, the Library offers classes on CUNY+ at the beginning of every semester.  Schedules can be picked up at the reference desk. CUNY+ is available on several terminals throughout the reference area and in the Library’s electronic classroom.  CUNY+ can also be accessed from your home computer.  Instructions on this procedure are available at the Library=s reference desk.


Use DPAC to locate books or other monographs.

DPAC is one of the databases available on the CUNY+ system. DPAC can be searched for books located in all of the CUNY libraries, not just John Jay Library.  (Type SET CAT ALL at the opening menu in DPAC.) Students of John Jay College can use their validated ID cards to gain access to any of these libraries, and can borrow books from any of them.

In the Library, DPAC is set to search the John Jay catalog. 

Keyword searching in DPAC:
This is the search method to use if you do not know a specific title or author to search, or are unsure of the Library of Congress subject heading. Type in words which describe the information you are looking for. You may combine terms with the operator “and” or if there is more than one word which would describe what you are looking for, you may use the operator “or”. You should not type in phrases while keyword searching as the database will not recognize certain words (i.e. in, with, of,) and your search will retrieve 0 results. For example, if you are interested in the police in India, do not type in K=police in India. Instead, type:

          K=police and India

or if you are interested in corrections in Japan, type:

          K=Japan and corrections

If you are looking more specifically for information about the jails in Japan, you may want to type:

          K=Japan and (jails or prisons)

In this case, either term (jails or prisons) might retrieve information so the operator “or” is used. Parentheses are placed around the two terms joined by the word “or”. The parentheses clearly distinguish the order in which the search should proceed. 

Remember that when searching for information on ethnic groups here in the United States, a search may retrieve information on that group in its native country as well as in the United States. In order to limit this to some extent,  search by ethnicity rather than by country (Vietnamese, rather than Vietnam). For example if you are looking for information on the incidence of Vietnamese gangs in the United States, type:

          K=Vietnamese and gangs 

To search for information on a group in its native country as well as in the United States, use the root of the word and the truncation symbol ?. The ? can be used to take the place of letters at the end of the word and retrieves records that contain any form of the word. For example, if you are looking for information on Russian organized crime in the United States and in Russia, type:

          K=Russia? and organized crime

This will pick up any records that pertain to organized crime and Russia, or Russian, or Russians.

Subject searching in DPAC:
DPAC can be searched using Library of Congress subject headings.  These lists are available in a four-volume set, located near the reference desk.  They are easy to use.  For example, if you wanted to find the subject heading for drug trade (illegal), look up drug trade in the alphabetical list.  If it is not the proper subject heading, a “Use” reference is provided. A “Use” reference provides you with the proper term to search under. In this case, to differentiate illegal drug activity from the pharmaceutical drug trade, the note “Use drug traffic” is provided. Under drug traffic, another note tells you that you can subdivide the subject geographically. When subdividing, use a double dash and a space on either side of the dashes. So, if you wanted to find information about the illegal drug trade in Burma, you could search:

          S=drug traffic -- Burma

Once a search has been performed, type any one of the line numbers which can be seen on the left hand side of the screen to display the complete book title, call number and status. This information can be used to physically find the item in the Library. 


Use DPER to locate articles published in magazines and journals. The search procedures used in DPAC may be used in DPER. John Jay Library does not have all of the magazines and journals included in the DPER database. There are booklets located beside most of the CUNY+ terminals that list the journals and magazines indexed in DPER that are available in the John Jay Library. This booklet also lists the locations and call numbers of these journals and magazines.


Use DNEW to locate articles published in newspapers. There are twenty seven newspapers indexed in the DNEW database. John Jay Library has nine of these. Ask at the reference desk for the list of the newspapers that we do have. 

There are time limitations in both DPER and DNEW. DPER goes back to 1982 and DNEW goes back to 1989. In order to find older materials,  there are CD-ROM databases, print indexes, or the various print bibliographies which were discussed in previous sections.


The Library has several computer terminals which provide access to CD-ROM databases. These are located next to the reference desk, or in the Library’s electronic classroom.


This database provides access to materials published in journals, books, government, and agency reports relating to criminal justice dating from 1968.  Most records provide lengthy annotations.  The database can be searched by typing in the desired terms at the prompt on the opening menu. Many of the same principles apply to searching this database as those used in DPAC. There are handouts available which explain how to search this database. For simple searching, however, simply type in your terms. For example, if you are interested in information about robbery in Japan, simply type in:

          Japan and robbery

at the Find prompt.  If you are interested in the golden triangle, simply type in:

          golden triangle

or crime in Laos,  simply type in:

          Laos and crime

Follow the instructions on the screen to view, print, or download the records.


This branch of the National Institute of Justice serves as a clearinghouse for criminal justice publications.  The CD-ROM indexes and abstracts materials dating from 1987.  The John Jay Library is a microfiche depository of the NCJRS and therefore, any items retrieved via the database can be searched for in DPAC or by using the NCJ number provided on the record (this is the number of the item in the microfiche collection). The opening menu displays the fields by which a subject can be searched and an online thesaurus is available. There are handouts available which explain how to search this database. For simple searching, however, highlight the line “subject global search” and enter your terms. For example, if you are interested in Vietnamese gangs, simply type in:

          Vietnamese gangs

or Chinese triads, simply type in:

          Chinese triads

Follow the instructions on the screen to view, print or download the records.


This database provides access to materials in sociology published in approximately 2000 journals from 55 countries and covers materials dating from 1974. Most records provide lengthy annotations.  An online thesaurus is provided or it can be searched by keyword. There are handouts available which explain how to search this database. For simple searching, however, type in your terms. So for example, if you want to find information about family violence among Asian Americans, simply type in:

          Asian Americans and family violence

at the “find” prompt. If you want information about drug abuse in India, type in:

          India and drug abuse 

Follow the instructions on the screen to view, print, or download the records.



Current Reference Index Area
Criminal justice periodical index. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI.

This index is cumulated annually and can be searched alphabetically by author or subject.  Asian Americans is a subject heading, and topics like police, juvenile offenders, and criminal statistics are subdivided geographically. The John Jay Library has from 1975 to the present.


Current Reference Index Area
Current law index. Foster City, CA: Information Access.

This index is cumulated annually (the subject index has a five-year cumulated volume) and can be searched alphabetically in separate author or subject volumes. Many topics are subdivided by the headings -comparative method- or -international aspects- and therefore offer an excellent approach to finding materials about Asia or various Asian countries in journals as well as law reviews. In addition, Asia, Asian Americans, and many of the miscellaneous countries are subject headings. The John Jay Library has from 1980 to the present.


Old Reference Index Area
New York times index.  New York: New York Times Co.

As DNEW only covers the period from 1989 to the present, this paper index is helpful because it can be used to locate articles published in The New York Times from 1851 to the present.



The Library has several computer terminals throughout the reference area and in the electronic classroom which provide access to the Internet. 

World Wide Web sites are constantly changing. The best sites are kept current and links to other sites are regularly checked. If a site is not maintained, the links may lapse, due to address changes.  The following is a list of World Wide Web sites which were well maintained as of July 1997:

John Jay College Library Home page.

This is the default setting of the internet terminals in the library.  From this homepage, choose Internet Information Sources. From here, choose International CJ and scroll through these to find sources on international criminal justice, law, statistics, and news.  Many of these duplicate the library’s print collection (i.e. the Country Studies) or compliment the collection by providing more current information. 

The World Factbook of Criminal Justice Systems, developed under a grant from the Bureau of Justice Statistics, provides individually authored essays concerning the political and legal systems of particular countries. Most of the texts were completed around 1993 and relied on information available from a year or two prior. 

Statistical sources linked to the library homepage include The Fourth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems, which offers statistics on personnel, crimes, corrections, and resources in the criminal justice systems of many Asian member countries.  Also, individual country statistical agencies are linked via the United States Census Bureau, and although these do not concentrate on criminal justice statistics, many of these are derived from surveys as recent as 1997.

Several newspapers from Asian Cultures are linked from the homepage.  From internet information sources, click on international cj, and then international news.  From here, choose editor and publisher online newspapers.  Scroll down and choose Asia (or Europe for Russian newspapers) and then click on the individual countries.  Although some countries have more than one choice, many of these are not in English, must be subscribed to, or are not kept current.  The following sources do not have these limitations and in most cases, the current issue and the news archives can be retrieved and searched by topic. If you are not working off of the library homepage, use the URL’s to retrieve the publications. 

http://www.indiaserver.com/thehindu/ The Hindu, India

http://www.hindustantimes.com/ Hindustan Times, India

http://www.timesofindia.com/ The Times of India, India

http://www.japantimes.co.jp/ Japan Times, Japan

http://www.chinadaily.net/ China Daily, People’s Republic of China

http://dawn.com/ Dawn, Pakistan

http://www.chosun.com/ Chosun, South Korea

http://www.lacnet.org/suntimes/ The Sunday Times, Sri Lanka

http://www.hkstandard.com/ The Hong Kong Standard, Hong Kong

http://www.ryukyu.ne.jp/~o-times/ The Okinawa Times, Okinawa

http://www.kuensel.com/ Kuensel, Bhutan

http://www.jaring.my/~star/ The Star, Malaysia

http://www.south-asia.com/news-ktmpost.html The Kathmandu Post, Nepal 

http://straitstimes.asia1.com/ The Straits Times Interactive, Singapore

http://www.bangkokpost.net/ Bangkok Post, Thailand

http://www.brunet.bn/news/bb/front.htm Borneo Bulletin Online, Brunei Darussalem

http://www.sptimes.ru/index.htm /The St. Petersburg Times, Russia

Asian Studies WWW Virtual Library

This homepage from the Australian National University, provides virtual libraries for access to information on regions and individual countries in Asia. In addition, top news from the largest Asian newspapers is provided full text. 

The Migration Home page

Choose Legislation, Policies, and Governmental Structures for an index to applicable case and constitutional law concerning immigration policies in individual countries.  Choose In the News for several articles on emigration from Asia or immigration to the United States by Asians.

National Law Material--Non-U.S.

This features links to different sites containing national law materials of various Asian countries.  These include texts of law and legal news.


This contains links to various resources on individual countries.

East Asian Center at Indiana University

This contains links to various resources on individual countries in East Asia.  This also provides a list of other National Resource Centers for East Asian studies.

International Association of Asian Crime Investigators

From this homepage, retrieve several studies on Asian and Asian American crime including gang crime, organized crime, underground banking, and forced prostitution.  There are some inactive links on this page.

Taipei Economic and Cultural Office 

This provides some access to information on current events and Mainland Affairs in China as well as the Chinese Information and Culture Center Library Catalog (see the section on libraries in New York City).


Information from various sources is constantly being posted on the Internet. Another way to retrieve information from the Internet is to perform your own search. Once you are in Netscape, use the mouse to click on “Net Search” from the tool bar. At that point you will find the screen in one of the various “search engines” (i.e. Lycos, Yahoo, Excite). Click on the search box and at the cursor, simply type in the word or words you are searching for and enter the search. This will retrieve a list of responses ranked by degree of pertinence to your query. At this point, you can click on any response and retrieve the information. 

It is important to pay attention to the source of the information. There are virtually no restrictions to posting information on the World Wide Web and the sources will sometimes be of indeterminate integrity or validity. To help evaluate the source of information, you should refer to the Library handout “Evaluating Information Sources on the WWW”.


The following libraries may be of some use in your research:

Cuny.  Students of John Jay College are permitted entry to any of the Cuny libraries.  Your John Jay I.D. is required to gain access and a validated I.D. is required to check out circulation books at any of the other schools. Hunter College offers degrees in Russian Area Studies and City College offers degrees in Asian Studies as well as Russian Studies.  Queens College offers degrees in Chinese and Oriental Studies.  All of these schools’ libraries have collections which support their programs. Check DPAC for books or journal titles and if not available at John Jay College, make a note of the library where the item is available. 

New York Public Library (Branch Libraries). The Chinatown branch at 33 Broadway houses the Chinese Heritage Collection as well as other English and Chinese language materials. 

New York Public Library (Center for the Humanities). The Central research library at 42nd St. and 5th Ave. has an Oriental Division and a Slavonic Division. Both of these collections are in native languages and contain no English language materials.

Chinese Information and Culture Center Library. Located at 1230 Avenue of the Americas (between 48th and 49th streets) on the second floor. This library is open to the public. No identification is necessary unless you wish to take out a book and then two forms of identification are needed. In addition to extensive reference and circulation collections (much of which is in English), the library serves as a government depository for the Republic of China. The catalog is available online through the homepage of the Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in New York. The URL is http://www.taipei.org.

The following libraries are not open to CUNY students without first acquiring a Metro card from a John Jay Librarian and should only be used when all other resources have been exhausted:

Columbia University Libraries. Herbert H. Lehman Library.  In the International Affairs building, the collection includes materials on international affairs. Law Library. Part of the collection pertains to international law. 

St. John’s University. Law Library. Part of the collection pertains to international, foreign, and comparative law.

Lloyd Sealy Library
John Jay College of Criminal Justice
899 10th Avenue
NY, NY 10019
Phone: (212) 237-8246
Fax: (212) 237-8221